Hill History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

Hill is one of the many new names that came to England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Hill family lived near or on a hill. Hill, which was extremely popular and widely distributed in England, is a classic example of an English polygenetic surname, which is a surname that was developed in a number of different locations and adopted by various families independently. The name was originally derived from the Old English hyll, which simply meant hill or dweller by the hill. [1]

Early Origins of the Hill family

The surname Hill was first found in Worcestershire, where one line is descended from the De Montes of Castlemorton in Worcestershire. The manor of Hillend in Castlemorton, Worcester was likely built on land held by Odo de Monte, or Hill, in 1238-9. Richard Hill of Castlemorton is mentioned in 1383 and John Hill of Castlemorton in 1408-9. John Hill died about 1623 holding a "messuage" at Hillend, which then passed to his son Thomas. [2]

Other early records of the name include Gilbert del Hill, who was listed in the Pipe Rolls for Norfolk in 1191; William "attehil" (literally at the hill,) who was listed in 1260 in the Assize Rolls of Cornwall, and Simon Hille who was listed in the Rotuli Hundredorum for Worcestershire of 1273. [1]

Again in Cornwall, "the rectory of St. Keverne, which had been appropriated to the priory of Beaulieu in Hampshire, was afterward for many years in the family of Hill. About the middle of the last century, the great tithes were sold by this family to the occupiers of the several estates, for a term of 999 years." [3]

Scotland was another ancient homeland for the family. In this case, the first record was William de la Hyll, son of Waldeve son of Aldewyn, who resigned lands in Mydilham in 1271. William o' the Hill rendered homage to King Edward I of England in 1296 and in 1321 William de le Hille was received to the king of England's peace." It was Richard de Hulle (Hill), 'a varlette of Scotland,' who 'stikked and killed' Catarine Mortimer, 'a damoisel of London,' one of the inmates of the harem of David II in 1360." [4]

Early History of the Hill family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Hill research. Another 138 words (10 lines of text) covering the years 1484, 1484, 1549, 1601, 1602, 1271, 1597, 1727, 1589, 1657, 1628, 1629, 1605, 1667, 1672, 1699, 1692, 1695, 1694, 1734, 1735, 1685, 1750, 1736, 1749, 1711, 1663, 1797 and are included under the topic Early Hill History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Hill Spelling Variations

Anglo-Norman names are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. When the Normans became the ruling people of England in the 11th century, they introduced a new language into a society where the main languages of Old and later Middle English had no definite spelling rules. These languages were more often spoken than written, so they blended freely with one another. Contributing to this mixing of tongues was the fact that medieval scribes spelled words according to sound, ensuring that a person's name would appear differently in nearly every document in which it was recorded. The name has been spelled Hill, Hille, Hyll, Hills and others.

Early Notables of the Hill family (pre 1700)

Distinguished members of the family include John Hill (1589-1657), an English merchant and politician, Member of Parliament for Dorchester (1628-1629); Roger Hill (1605-1667), of Poundsford, Somerset, an English judge and Member of Parliament; Michael Hill (1672-1699), an English politician, Member of Parliament for Saltash (1692-1695), appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland in 1694; James Hill (died 1734), an English master mason in Cheltenham...
Another 64 words (5 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Hill Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Hill World Ranking

In the United States, the name Hill is the 33rd most popular surname with an estimated 465,069 people with that name. [5] However, in Canada, the name Hill is ranked the 73rd most popular surname with an estimated 32,716 people with that name. [6] And in Newfoundland, Canada, the name Hill is the 441st popular surname with an estimated 106 people with that name. [7] France ranks Hill as 6,613rd with 1,000 - 1,500 people. [8] Australia ranks Hill as 31st with 48,017 people. [9] New Zealand ranks Hill as 41st with 5,499 people. [10] The United Kingdom ranks Hill as 30th with 105,702 people. [11] South Africa ranks Hill as 861st with 8,118 people. [12]

Ireland Migration of the Hill family to Ireland

Some of the Hill family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 81 words (6 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.


United States Hill migration to the United States +

For many English families, the political and religious disarray that plagued their homeland made the frontiers of the New World an attractive prospect. Thousands migrated, aboard cramped disease-ridden ships. They arrived sick, poor, and hungry, but were welcomed in many cases with far greater opportunity than at home in England. Many of these hardy settlers went on to make important contributions to the emerging nations in which they landed. Among early immigrants bearing the name Hill or a variant listed above were:

Hill Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Edward Hill, who settled in Virginia in 1623
  • Henry Hill, who settled in Bermuda in 1635
  • Mr. John Hill, (b. 1613), aged 22, British settler traveling aboard the ship "Safety" arriving in Virginia in 1635 [13]
  • Abraham Hill, who landed in Charlestown, Massachusetts in 1640 [14]
  • Barbery Hill, who landed in Virginia in 1648 [14]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Hill Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Ann Hill, who arrived in Boston, Massachusetts in 1767 [14]
  • Thomas Hill, who landed in North Carolina in 1775 [14]
  • Charles Hill, who arrived in New Hampshire in 1776 [14]
  • Casper Hill, who arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1791 [14]
  • Christopher Hill, who landed in Frederick County, Maryland in 1795 [14]
Hill Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Adam Hill, who landed in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania in 1808 [14]
  • Alexander Hill, aged 23, who arrived in South Carolina in 1812 [14]
  • Anne Hill, who landed in New York, NY in 1816 [14]
  • Adam Hill, who sailed from Ireland to New York in 1816
  • Arthur Hill, who arrived in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania in 1832 [14]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Hill Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Mr. John Hill, (b. 1876), aged 29, Cornish stonemason travelling aboard the ship "New York" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 4th June 1905 en route to Bangor, Pennsylvania, USA [15]
  • Mr. Edward Reginald Hill, (b. 1903), aged 2, Cornish settler travelling aboard the ship "St Louis" arriving at Ellis Island, New York in 1905 en route to Eveleth, Minnesota, USA [15]
  • Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Hill, (b. 1881), aged 24, Cornish settler travelling aboard the ship "St Louis" arriving at Ellis Island, New York in 1905 en route to Eveleth, Minnesota, USA [15]

Canada Hill migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Hill Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Abnel Hill, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Anthy Hill, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1774
  • Mr. James Hill U.E. who arrived at Port Roseway [Shelburne], Nova Scotia on October 26, 1783 was passenger number 196 aboard the ship "HMS Clinton", picked up on September 28, 1783 at Staten Island, New York [16]
  • Mr. Joseph Hill U.E. who arrived at Port Roseway [Shelburne], Nova Scotia c. 1783 was a passenger aboard the ship "HMS Clinton" [16]
  • Mr. Nazareth Hill U.E. who settled in Kingston, Ontario c. 1784 [16]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Hill Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Alvin Hill, who arrived in Canada in 1828
  • Archibald Hill, aged 30, who landed in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833
  • Andrew Hill, aged 30, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Susan" in 1838
  • Ms. Francis Hill, aged 20 who immigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "John Munn" departing from the port of Liverpool, England but died on Grosse Isle on September 2nd, 1847 [17]
  • Mrs. Catherine Hill, aged 60 who was emigrating through Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec aboard the ship "John and Robert" departing 9th June 1847 from Liverpool, England; the ship arrived on 6th August 1847 but she died on board [18]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Australia Hill migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Hill Settlers in Australia in the 18th Century
Hill Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Miss Ann Hill, British Convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Earl Cornwallis" in August 1800, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [20]
  • Miss Sarah Hill, British Convict who was convicted in Worcester, Worcestershire, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Earl Cornwallis" in August 1800, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [20]
  • Miss Elizabeth Hill, British Convict who was convicted in Barnstaple, Devon, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Experiment" on 4th December 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [21]
  • Mrs. Hannah Hill (nee Astbury), (b. 1772), aged 31, British Convict who was convicted in Stafford, Staffordshire, England for 7 years for larceny, transported aboard the "Experiment" on 4th December 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, she died in 1851 [21]
  • Miss Jane Hill, British Convict who was convicted in Somerset, England for life, transported aboard the "Experiment" on 4th December 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [21]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

New Zealand Hill migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Hill Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • George Hill, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840
  • George Hill, aged 36, a carpenter, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Arab" in 1841
  • Ann Hill, aged 38, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Arab" in 1841
  • Jane Hill, aged 13, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Arab" in 1841
  • John Hill, aged 11, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Arab" in 1841
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

West Indies Hill migration to West Indies +

The British first settled the British West Indies around 1604. They made many attempts but failed in some to establish settlements on the Islands including Saint Lucia and Grenada. By 1627 they had managed to establish settlements on St. Kitts (St. Christopher) and Barbados, but by 1641 the Spanish had moved in and destroyed some of these including those at Providence Island. The British continued to expand the settlements including setting the First Federation in the British West Indies by 1674; some of the islands include Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Island, Turks and Caicos, Jamaica and Belize then known as British Honduras. By the 1960's many of the islands became independent after the West Indies Federation which existed from 1958 to 1962 failed due to internal political conflicts. After this a number of Eastern Caribbean islands formed a free association. [22]
Hill Settlers in West Indies in the 17th Century
  • Mr. John Hill, (b. 1615), aged 19, British settler travelling from Gravesend, UK aboard the ship "Hopewell" arriving in Barbados on 17th February 1634 [14]
  • Mr. John Hill, (b. 1612), aged 23, British settler travelling from London, England aboard the ship "Alexander" arriving in Barbados in 1635 [23]
  • Miss Joan Hill, (b. 1614), aged 21, British settler traveling aboard the ship "John" arriving in St Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635 [24]
  • Mr. John Hill, (b. 1617), aged 18, British settler traveling aboard the ship "Matthew" arriving in St Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635 [25]
  • Joan Hill, who immigrated to St. Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Hill (post 1700) +

  • Oliver White Hill Sr. (1907-2007), American civil rights attorney from Richmond, Virginia, known for his work against racial discrimination, recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
  • Joseph Michael "Dusty" Hill (1949-2021), American musician who was the bassist and secondary vocalist of the American rock group ZZ Top, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004
  • Lew Hill (d. 2021), American college head coach for the Texas–Rio Grande Valley Vaqueros men's basketball team who died from COVID-19
  • Joyce E. Hill (1925-2021), American catcher who played from 1945 through 1952 in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League
  • Aubrey Hill (1972-2020), American college football player and coach from Miami, Florida
  • Jack Hill (1944-2020), American politician, Member of the Georgia Senate (1991-2020)
  • Fred Hill Sr. (1934-2019), American head baseball coach at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey
  • Travis LaVell Hill (1969-2018), American professional NFL football player for the Cleveland Browns and Carolina Panthers (1993-1995)
  • Garry Alton Hill (1946-2017), American Major League Baseball pitcher who pitched for the Atlanta Braves on June 12, 1969
  • Bruce Hill (1949-2017), American stock car racing driver
  • ... (Another 68 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Air New Zealand Flight 901
  • Mr. Gordon Alexander Hill (1933-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Mission Bay, Auckland, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; he died in the crash [26]
  • Mrs. Eileen Elsie Hill (1906-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Lower Hutt, North Island, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; she died in the crash [26]
Empress of Ireland
  • Mrs. Mary Hill (1890-1914), née Clegg Canadian Third Class Passenger from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada who was traveling aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [27]
Flight 191
  • E C Hill, American passenger from Los Angeles, California, USA, who flew aboard American Airlines Flight 191 and died in the crash [28]
Flight TWA 800
  • Ms. Susan Carol Hill (1951-1996), from Portland, Oregon, USA, American hostage-negotiator flying aboard flight TWA 800 from J.F.K. Airport, New York to Leonardo da Vinci Airport, Rome when the plane crashed after takeoff ; she died in the crash [29]
Fraterville mine
  • Mr. George Hill, American coal miner at Fraterville mine in Tennessee, on the 19th May 1902 when an explosion collapsed the mine; he died [30]
Halifax Explosion
  • Mr. Albert  Hill, English stationed at the Composite Battalion from London, England, United Kingdom who died in the explosion [31]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Robert Henry Hill (1914-1941), Australian Engine Room Artificer 4th Class from Clarence Park, South Australia, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Douglas Hugh Hill (1920-1941), Australian Stoker from Gawler East, South Australia, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Peter Hill (1916-1941), Australian Able Seaman from Armadale, Western Australia, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [32]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. Eric J R Hill (b. 1918), Irish Marine serving for the Royal Marine from Killbride, County Wicklow, Ireland, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [33]
HMS Prince of Wales
  • Mr. William P Hill, British Able Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [34]
  • Mr. Leonard S Y Hill, British Chief Petty Officer, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [34]
  • Mr. Jack Alfred Hill, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [34]
HMS Repulse
  • Mr. James Hill, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [35]
  • Mr. George Richard Hill, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [35]
  • Mr. Angus C Hill, British Petty Officer Telegraphist, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [35]
HMS Royal Oak
  • Ernest Frederick Hill (1916-1939), British Stoker 1st Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [36]
  • Samuel Hill (1915-1939), British Ordnance Artificer 4th Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [36]
  • Douglas Hill (d. 1939), British Stoker 1st Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [36]
  • Donald Hill (1916-1939), British Shipwright 4th Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [36]
  • Albert Hill (1917-1939), British Able Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [36]
Pan Am Flight 103 (Lockerbie)
  • Alfred Hill (1959-1988), German Passenger from Sonthofen, Germany, who flew aboard the Pan Am Flight 103 from Frankfurt to Detroit, known as the Lockerbie bombing in 1988 and died [37]
RMS Lusitania
  • Mrs. Emma Jane Hill, English 2nd Class passenger residing in Schenectady, New York, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking by escaping in life boat 15 [38]
  • Mr. William Spencer Hill, Welsh 2nd Class passenger from Wales, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [38]
  • Mr. Charles Tilden Hill, American 1st Class Passenger residing in London, England, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking by escaping in life boat 14 [38]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. H.P. Hill (d. 1912), aged 36, English Steward from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [39]
  • Mr. James Colston Hill (d. 1912), aged 38, English Bedroom Steward from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [39]
  • Mr. James Hill (d. 1912), aged 25, English Trimmer from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [39]
Senghenydd colliery
  • Mr. Charles Fred Hill (b. 1876), Welsh coal miner from Caerphilly, Wales who was working at the Senghenydd colliery when there was an explosion on the 14th October 1913; he died
  • Mr. David Henry Hill (b. 1897), Welsh coal miner from Senghenydd, Caerphilly, Wales who was working at the Senghenydd colliery when there was an explosion on the 14th October 1913; he died
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Richard H. Hill, American Yeoman Second Class working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he survived the sinking [40]
  • Mr. Bartley Talor Hill, American Aviation Ordananceman Third Class from California, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [40]


The Hill Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Avancez
Motto Translation: Advance.


Suggested Readings for the name Hill +

  • Blue Ridge Mountain Kinfolks: A Record of Ancestors, Descendants, and Relatives of the Author and Wife, Including Fisher-Gilbert-Hall-Hartley-Hill-Kirby-Lawson Families by Larry King.
  • Genealogy of Thomas Hill and Rebecca Miles; English Ancestors, Maryland Emigrants, Kentucky Pioneers, Americans, U.S.A. by Mary Louise Donnelly.

  1. ^ Reaney, P.H and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. (ISBN 0-415-05737-X)
  2. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  3. ^ Hutchins, Fortescue, The History of Cornwall, from the Earliest Records and Traditions to the Present Time. London: William Penaluna, 1824. Print
  4. ^ Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
  5. ^ https://namecensus.com/most_common_surnames.htm
  6. ^ https://forebears.io/surnames/
  7. ^ The order of Common Surnames in 1955 in Newfoundland retrieved on 20th October 2021 (retrieved from Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland by E.R. Seary corrected edition ISBN 0-7735-1782-0)
  8. ^ http://www.journaldesfemmes.com/nom-de-famille/nom/
  9. ^ https://forebears.io/australia/surnames
  10. ^ https://forebears.io/new-zealand/surnames
  11. ^ https://www.surnamemap.eu/unitedkingdom/surnames_ranking.php?p=10
  12. ^ https://forebears.io/south-africa/surnames
  13. ^ Pilgrim Ship's of 1600's (Retrieved October 5th 2021, retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  14. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  15. ^ Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 3rd May 2018). Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_ellis_island_1892_on.pdf
  16. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  17. ^ Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 33)
  18. ^ Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 80)
  19. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 30th October 2020). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/Britannia
  20. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 13th August 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/earl-cornwallis
  21. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 22nd March 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/coromandel-and-experiment
  22. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_West_Indies
  23. ^ Pilgrim Ship Lists Early 1600's retrieved 28th September 2021. (Retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  24. ^ Pilgrim Ship's of 1600's (Retrieved October 4th 2021, retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/daphne)
  25. ^ Pilgrim Ship's of 1600's (Retrieved October 4th 2021, retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  26. ^ Mount Erebus, Memorial, Roll of Remembrance (Retrieved 2018, February 21st). Retrieved from http://www.erebus.co.nz/memorialandawards/rollofremembrance.aspx
  27. ^ Commemoration Empress of Ireland 2014. (Retrieved 2014, June 17) . Retrieved from http://www.empress2014.ca/seclangen/listepsc1.html
  28. ^ Flight 191's Victims - latimes. (Retrieved 2014, April 16) . Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/1985-08-04/news/mn-4349_1_fort-lauderdale-area
  29. ^ The Washington Post Passenger List TWA Flight 800. (Retrieved 2018, February 15th). Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/twa800/list01.htm
  30. ^ News paper article Fraterville Mine Disaster retrieved on 6th August 2021. (Retrieved from http://www.tn.gov/tsla/exhibits/disasters/fraterville.htm).
  31. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  32. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  33. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  34. ^ HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  35. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  36. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  37. ^ Pan Am Flight 103's victims: A list of those killed 25 years ago | syracuse.com. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2013/12/pan_am_flight_103s_victims_a_list_of_those_killed_25_years_ago.html
  38. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  39. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html
  40. ^ Pearl Harbour: USS Arizona Casualties List Pearl Harbour December 7, 1941. (Retrieved 2018, July 31st). Retrieved from http://pearl-harbor.com/arizona/casualtylist.html


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