King Edward I

After the rebellion of 1296, King Edward I (1239-1307) of England marched north, capturing Berwick and carried on to Aberdeen. There he stripped John Baliol of his crown and carried the Coronation Stone of Scone back to England. The Stone of Scone, (pronounced "skoon") sometimes called the Stone of Destiny was an extremely important symbol of Scottish heritage and the fact that it was never returned contributed to a strong discomfort between Scotland and England over the many years.

The Stone was used in coronations since 1308 and remained in Westminster Abbey until it was stolen in the 1950's. Upon it's return in that same year, it was kept in a vault. In 1952, it was returned to its perch under the seat of the Coronation Chair at Westminster, where it was kept under tight security. It was formally returned to Scotland November 15, 1996 and was put on public display at Edinburgh Castle.

The Ragman Rolls lists barons and gentry who paid homage or swore an oath of allegiance to the English King upon his conquest of Scotland. Many of the Border Clans had little choice but to ender homage to the conqueror.

Upon Edward's death, his son buried him at Westminster Abbey with the inscription Scotorum malleus (Hammer of Scots).


  1. ^ Swyrich, Archive materials
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