Harris History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The family name Harris dates back to the beginnings of the Norman culture in Britain - the Norman Conquest of 1066. Originally, Harris was a name given to a person who was the son of the ruler of the property upon which he lived. Initially, le Herisse, the name came to England with the Norman Conquest, and is of Old French derivation. Another derivation, which is probably more common shows that the name is a version of the Old English given name Harry. [1] Although both derivations are valid time has confused them and historians now disagree on which is appropriate in a given situation.

Early Origins of the Harris family

The surname Harris was first found in Normandy, where Hericius and his brothers were in 1022 prohibited by King Robert of France from making inroads of on the estates of a neighbouring abbey. "Henricus was father of Ancelin de Beaumont who in 1086 held a barony in Nottinghamshire. Ivo Fitz-Herice or De Heriz, his son was Viscount of Nottinghamshire before 1130." [2]

His sons quickly spread through Britain as seen by Robert Fitz-Herice who was mentioned in a charter of Barberie Abbey, executed by Henry II; Josceline Fitz-Herice mentioned in Huntingdonshire in 1156; and William who held two fees in Nottinghamshire and four in Lincolnshire in 1165. Humphrey Hairez was listed in Berkshire in 1158.

William Herez held an estate in Wiltshire in the 13th century and later one of his descendants held estates in Salisbury in 1469 and was ancestor of the Earls of Malmsbury who also have three herrisons on their arms. [2]

" Harris and Heris are armorially identified, each bearing three herissons (hedgehogs) in allusion to the name." [2]

"Wootton Hall [in Wooton, Northamptonshire], the seat of W. Harris, Esq., stands elevated, and commands extensive prospects: the grounds are surrounded with thriving plantations." [3]

"Radford, in Plymstock, [Devon] has been a seat of the Harris family for nearly 500 years. Here Ralegh is said to have been kept in ward on his return in 1618, and here at times Drake stored much of his treasure. " [4]

Early History of the Harris family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Harris research. Another 158 words (11 lines of text) covering the years 1080, 1600, 1483, 1399, 1581, 1658, 1588, 1658, 1680, 1596, 1649, 1628, 1644, 1650, 1686, 1671, 1685, 1631, 1677, 1661, 1677, 1666, 1719 and are included under the topic Early Harris History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Harris Spelling Variations

Before the last few hundred years the English language had no fixed system of spelling rules. For that reason, spelling variations occurred commonly in Anglo Norman surnames. Over the years, many variations of the name Harris were recorded, including Harris, Harries, Harrys, Harryss, Haries, Haris, Hairis and many more.

Early Notables of the Harris family (pre 1700)

Outstanding amongst the family at this time was John ap Harry of Poston in Vowchurch, High Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1399; Robert Harris (1581-1658), an English clergyman, known as a Puritan preacher, member of the Westminster Assembly, and President of Trinity College, Oxford; John Harris (Harrys) (c.1588-1658), an English academic and clergyman, Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford, long-time Warden of Winchester College, and a member of the Westminster Assembly; Peter Harris (the elder) (died 1680), a British buccaneer, one of the captains...
Another 82 words (6 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Harris Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Harris World Ranking

In the United States, the name Harris is the 15th most popular surname with an estimated 683,925 people with that name. [5] However, in Canada, the name Harris is ranked the 74th most popular surname with an estimated 32,407 people with that name. [6] And in Newfoundland, Canada, the name Harris is the 66th popular surname with an estimated 403 people with that name. [7] Australia ranks Harris as 17th with 53,949 people. [8] New Zealand ranks Harris as 14th with 6,379 people. [9] The United Kingdom ranks Harris as 24th with 115,915 people. [10] South Africa ranks Harris as 471st with 15,126 people. [11]

Ireland Migration of the Harris family to Ireland

Some of the Harris family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 67 words (5 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.


United States Harris migration to the United States +

The unstable environment in England at this time caused numerous families to board ships and leave in search of opportunity and freedom from persecution abroad in places like Ireland, Australia, and particularly the New World. The voyage was extremely difficult, however, and only taken at great expense. The cramped conditions and unsanitary nature of the vessels caused many to arrive diseased and starving, not to mention destitute from the enormous cost. Still opportunity in the emerging nations of Canada and the United States was far greater than at home and many went on to make important contributions to the cultures of their adopted countries. An examination of many early immigration records reveals that people bearing the name Harris arrived in North America very early:

Harris Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Adria Harris, who arrived in Virginia in 1621 [12]
  • Lt. Harris who settled in Virginia in 1623
  • Lieutenant Harris, who landed in Virginia in 1623 [12]
  • Dorothe Harris, who landed in Virginia in 1623 [12]
  • Elizabeth Harris, who settled in Salem, Massachusetts in 1630
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Harris Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Ann Harris, who settled in Maryland in 1737
  • Alexander Harris, who landed in America in 1764 [12]
  • Edward Harris, who arrived in Kentucky in 1773 [12]
Harris Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Christopher Harris, (b. 1818), aged 19, Cornish miner departing from Falmouth aboard the ship "Royal Adelaide" arriving in the United States on 8th May 1837 [13]
  • Mr. Thomas Harris, (b. 1814), aged 23, Cornish miner departing from Falmouth aboard the ship "Royal Adelaide" arriving in the United States on 8th May 1837 [13]
  • Mr. James Harris, (b. 1823), aged 17, English miner departing from England aboard the ship "Royal Adelaide" arriving in the United States on 21st April 1840 [13]
  • Miss Mary Harris, (b. 1832), aged 8, English settler departing from England aboard the ship "Royal Adelaide" arriving in the United States on 21st April 1840 [13]
  • Mr. Thomas Harris, (b. 1777), aged 63, Cornish farmer departing from Bristol aboard the ship "Druid" arriving in Ohio, USA on 29 June 1840 [13]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Harris Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Mr. Nicholas Harris, (b. 1861), aged 39, Cornish miner from St. Austell, Cornwall, UK travelling aboard the ship "Ivernia" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 21st May 1900 en route to Colorado, USA [14]
  • Mr. Harry Harris, (b. 1879), aged 21, Cornish miner travelling aboard the ship "St Paul" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 13th May 1900 en route to Butte, Montana, USA [14]
  • Mr. James Harris, (b. 1876), aged 24, Cornish miller travelling aboard the ship "St Paul" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 14th January 1900 en route to Butte, Montana, USA [14]
  • Mr. James Harris, (b. 1876), aged 24, Cornish miller travelling aboard the ship "St Paul" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 14th January 1900 en route to Butte, Montana, USA [14]
  • Mr. Harry Harris, (b. 1879), aged 21, Cornish miner travelling aboard the ship "St Paul" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 13th May 1900 en route to Butte, Montana, USA [14]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Canada Harris migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Harris Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Mrs. Elizabeth Harris U.E. who settled in Saint John, New Brunswickc. 1783 was a passenger aboard "Cyrus" on August 21, 1783 from New York to Saint John River [15]
  • Mr. James Harris U.E. who settled in Belle Vue, Beaver Harbour, Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1783 [15]
  • Mr. John Harris U.E. who settled in Saint John, New Brunswick c. 1783 was a passenger aboard "Cyrus" on August 21, 1783 from New York to Saint John River [15]
  • Mr. Massy Harris U.E. from Rhode Island, USA who settled in Saint John, New Brunswick c. 1783 passenger aboard the Union Transport he served in the New Jersey Volunteers [15]
  • Mr. Thomas Harris U.E. who settled in Saint John, New Brunswick c. 1783 was a passenger aboard "Cyrus" on August 21, 1783 from New York to Saint John River [15]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Harris Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Alanson Harris, who landed in Canada in 1828
  • Mrs. Harris, aged 56, a lady, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the brig "Sarah" from Bristol, England
  • Edward Harris, aged 24, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the barque "Pallas" from Cork, Ireland
  • Mary Harris, aged 23, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the brig "Charity" from Kinsale, Ireland
  • Nancy Harris, aged 24, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Protector" in 1834
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Australia Harris migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Harris Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Thomas Harris, British Convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Earl Cornwallis" in August 1800, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [16]
  • Mr. John Harris, (b. 1783), aged 19, British Convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for life, transported aboard the "Coromandel" on 4th December 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • Mr. Richard Harris, British Convict who was convicted in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Coromandel" on 4th December 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • Miss Rose Harris, Cornish convict who was convicted in Cornwall, England for life, transported aboard the "Experiment" on 4th December 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • Mr. Samuel Harris, British Convict who was convicted in Somerset, England for life, transported aboard the "Coromandel" on 4th December 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

New Zealand Harris migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Harris Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Henry Harris, Cornish settler travelling from Launceston, UK aboard the ship "Brazil Packet" arriving in New Zealand in 1836 [18]
  • W Harris, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1839
  • Abram Harris, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840
  • Luke Harris, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840
  • R T Harris, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1840
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

West Indies Harris migration to West Indies +

The British first settled the British West Indies around 1604. They made many attempts but failed in some to establish settlements on the Islands including Saint Lucia and Grenada. By 1627 they had managed to establish settlements on St. Kitts (St. Christopher) and Barbados, but by 1641 the Spanish had moved in and destroyed some of these including those at Providence Island. The British continued to expand the settlements including setting the First Federation in the British West Indies by 1674; some of the islands include Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Island, Turks and Caicos, Jamaica and Belize then known as British Honduras. By the 1960's many of the islands became independent after the West Indies Federation which existed from 1958 to 1962 failed due to internal political conflicts. After this a number of Eastern Caribbean islands formed a free association. [19]
Harris Settlers in West Indies in the 17th Century
  • Mr. Willim Harris, (b. 1599), aged 35, British settler travelling from London, UK arriving in St Christopher (St. Kitts) on 5th January 1634 [12]
  • Mr. William Harris, (b. 1612), aged 23, British settler travelling from London, England aboard the ship "Anne and Elizabeth" arriving in Barbados in 1635 [20]
  • William Harris, who settled in St. Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635
  • Mr. Richard Harris, (b. 1609), aged 26, British settler traveling aboard the ship "William and John" arriving in St Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635 [21]
  • Mr. Robert Harris, (b. 1593), aged 42, British settler travelling from Gravesend, England aboard the ship "Falcon" arriving in Barbados in 1636 [22]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Harris (post 1700) +

  • Cynthia Lee Harris (1934-2021), American film, television, and stage actress, best known for her roles in the television series Edward & Mrs. Simpson and the sitcom Mad About You
  • Curtis West Harris (1924-2017), American minister, civil rights activist, and politician from Dendron, Virginia
  • James H. Harris (1828-1898), American Union Army soldier during the American Civil War, recipient of the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Chaffin's Farm
  • Kamala Devi Harris (b. 1964), American politician and attorney, Vice President of the United States, the highest ranking woman in the United States, the first woman of color to be Vice President
  • Barbara Clementine Harris (1930-2020), American bishop of the Episcopal Church
  • Kylie Rae Harris (1989-2019), American singer-songwriter from Wylie, Texas who died from a car accident at 30 years old
  • Bill Harris (1934-2017), American politician, 92nd President of the Ohio Senate (2005-2010), Member of the Ohio Senate (2000-2010)
  • Bradford Harris (1933-2017), American actor, stuntman, and executive producer, inducted into the Stuntman's Hall of Fame
  • Viola Harris (1926-2017), American actress known for roles in television, theater and film, known for her roles with Woody Allen including The Other Guys, Choke, and Deconstructing Harry
  • Joi "S.J." Harris (1977-2017), American motorcycle road racer and stuntwoman who was killed while filming a motorcycle stunt on the set of Deadpool2
  • ... (Another 59 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Harris family +

Air New Zealand Flight 901
  • Miss Hazel Phoebe Harris (1919-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Hamilton, North Island, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; she died in the crash [23]
Arrow Air Flight 1285
  • Mr. Brian D Harris (b. 1965), American Private 1st Class from Canton, Ohio, USA who died in the crash [24]
Flight TWA 800
  • Mr. Lawrence E. Harris (d. 1996), from New York, New York, USA, American passenger, son of Jeffrey H Erickson president and chief executive of TWA flying aboard flight TWA 800 from J.F.K. Airport, New York to Leonardo da Vinci Airport, Rome when the plane crashed after takeoff ; he died in the crash [25]
  • Miss. Chelsea Lynn Harris (1988-1996), from New York, USA, American passenger traveling with Elsie Ostachiewicz flying aboard flight TWA 800 from J.F.K. Airport, New York to Leonardo da Vinci Airport, Rome when the plane crashed after takeoff ; she died in the crash [25]
Halifax Explosion
  • Master John Russell  Harris (1917-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [26]
  • Mr. George Frederick  Harris (1871-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [26]
Hillcrest Coal Mine
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Ronald Charles Harris (1915-1941), Australian Able Seaman from North Richmond, Victoria, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [28]
HMS Cornwall
  • Arthur Thomas Harris (d. 1942), British Able Seaman aboard the HMS Cornwall when she was struck by air bombers and sunk; he died in the sinking [29]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. Desmond S R Harris (b. 1916), English Lieutenant serving for the Royal Marine from Keyham, Devonport, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [30]
  • Mr. James H Harris (b. 1908), English Marine serving for the Royal Marine from Kidderminster, Worcestershire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [30]
  • Mr. Frank R Harris (b. 1920), English Ordnance Artificer 4th Class serving for the Royal Navy from Copnor, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [30]
  • Mr. Charles A Harris (b. 1901), English Chief Mechanician serving for the Royal Navy from Blandford, Dorset, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [30]
HMS Prince of Wales
HMS Repulse
  • Mr. Samuel Harris, British Petty Officer, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Leonard Harris, British Boy 1st Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Trevor Harris, British Boy 1st Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Albert W G Harris, British Boy, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [32]
HMS Royal Oak
  • Edward J. Harris, British Leading Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [33]
  • Edward Harris, British Engine Room Artificer 5th Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [33]
  • Donald T. Harris, British Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [33]
  • Norman Herrick Harris (1921-1939), British Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [33]
  • Percy Walter Harris (1905-1939), British Leading Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [33]
  • ... (Another 2 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Monongah Mine
  • Mr. George Harris (b. 1879), African American coal miner who was in mine 8 at the Monongah mine on 6th December 1907 when it exploded and collapsed; he died [34]
Prince of Wales colliery
  • Mr. Arthur Harris (b. 1862), Welsh coal miner who was working at the Prince of Wales Colliery in Abercarn, Wales on the 11th September 1878 when there was a coal mine explosion; he died [35]
  • Mr. John Harris (b. 1864), Welsh coal miner who was working at the Prince of Wales Colliery in Abercarn, Wales on the 11th September 1878 when there was a coal mine explosion; he died [35]
  • Mr. James Harris (b. 1848), Welsh coal miner who was working at the Prince of Wales Colliery in Abercarn, Wales on the 11th September 1878 when there was a coal mine explosion; he died [35]
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. John Lewis Harris, English Assistant Butcher from Birmingham, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [36]
  • Mr. Edward James Harris, English Trimmer from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [36]
  • Mr. Reuben Harris, English 2nd Class passenger residing in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [37]
  • Mrs. Emma Harris, English 2nd Class passenger residing in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [37]
  • Mr. Dwight Carlton Harris, American 1st Class Passenger from New York, New York, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking by escaping in life boat believed to be 22 [37]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. Charles William Harris (d. 1912), aged 19, English Saloon Steward from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [38]
  • Mr. Clifford Henry Harris (d. 1912), aged 16, English Bell Boy from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [38]
  • Mr. Edward Harris (d. 1912), aged 18, English Assistant Pantryman Steward from Winchester, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [38]
  • Mr. Edward John Harris (d. 1912), aged 28, English Fireman/Stoker from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [38]
  • Mr. Frederick Harris, aged 34, English Fireman/Stoker from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping on life boat 14 [38]
  • ... (Another 4 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
SS Alcoa Puritan
  • H.L. Harris, American Messman from Mobile, Alabama, who was working aboard the SS Alcoa Puritan traveling from Port of Spain, Trinidad to Mobile, Alabama when it was torpedoed by U-boat U-507; he survived the sinking [39]
SS Newfoundland
  • Mr. John Alpheus Harris, Newfoundlander from New Chelsea, who on the 30th March 1914 he was part of the Seal Crew of the "SS Newfoundland" leaving the ship to intercept the Stephano which took him to the hunting grounds, he disembarked to begin sealing, but was caught in a thickening storm, attempting to return to the Newfoundland he and the 132 crew made camp for two days the sealers were stranded on the ice in a blizzard attempting to return to the ship, he survived
SS Southern Cross
  • Mr. Abner Harris (b. 1914), Newfoundlander from Adeytown who was aboard the "SS Southern Cross" when it is suspected she sank between the 31st March 1914 and early April during the storm with a heavy load of pelts; no survivors were ever found
Triangle Waist Company
  • Miss Esther Harris (b. 1890), American worker who was at Triangle Waist Company factory at the Asch building in Greenwich Village on the 25th March 1911 when fire broke out; she survived the fire but broke her back coming down the elevator chute [40]
  • Miss Eva Harris, American worker who was at Triangle Waist Company factory at the Asch building in Greenwich Village on the 25th March 1911 when fire broke out; she survived the fire [40]
  • Mr. Isaac Harris, American Jewish co-owner of the Triangle Waist Company factory at the Asch building in Greenwich Village on the 25th March 1911 when fire broke out; he survived the fire by heading to the roof, he was found guilty of wrongful death at trial [40]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Henry S. Harris, American Seaman First Class working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he survived the sinking [41]
  • Mr. John D. Harris, American Seaman First Class working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he survived the sinking [41]
  • Mr. Peter John Harris, American Coxswain from Nebraska, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [41]
  • Mr. George Ellsworth Harris, American Machinist's Mate First Class from Illinois, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [41]
  • Mr. Hiram Dennis Harris, American Seaman First Class from Georgia, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [41]
  • ... (Another 2 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)


The Harris Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Ubique patriam reminisci
Motto Translation: Everywhere to remember one's country.


Suggested Readings for the name Harris +

  • Families of Elisha, Joseph and Woodruff Harris of Chenango County, New York and Geauga and Portage Counties, Ohio by Gale Ion Harris.
  • Harris Index: A Biographical of Over 4500 American Descendants of Edward Harris and Flora Douglas of Scotland, 1730-1983 by Calsita V. Leonard.

  1. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  2. ^ The Norman People and Their Existing Descendants in the British Dominions and the United States Of America. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1975. Print. (ISBN 0-8063-0636-X)
  3. ^ Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.
  4. ^ Worth, R.N., A History of Devonshire London: Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster Row, E.G., 1895. Digital
  5. ^ https://namecensus.com/most_common_surnames.htm
  6. ^ https://forebears.io/surnames/
  7. ^ The order of Common Surnames in 1955 in Newfoundland retrieved on 20th October 2021 (retrieved from Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland by E.R. Seary corrected edition ISBN 0-7735-1782-0)
  8. ^ https://forebears.io/australia/surnames
  9. ^ https://forebears.io/new-zealand/surnames
  10. ^ https://www.surnamemap.eu/unitedkingdom/surnames_ranking.php?p=10
  11. ^ https://forebears.io/south-africa/surnames
  12. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  13. ^ Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 2018, April 30). Emigrants to New York 1820 - 1891 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_new_york_1820_1891.pdf
  14. ^ Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 3rd May 2018). Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_ellis_island_1892_on.pdf
  15. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  16. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 13th August 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/earl-cornwallis
  17. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 22nd March 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/coromandel-and-experiment
  18. ^ New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  19. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_West_Indies
  20. ^ Pilgrim Ship Lists Early 1600's retrieved 23rd September 2021. (Retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  21. ^ Pilgrim Ship's of 1600's (Retrieved October 4th 2021, retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  22. ^ Pilgrim Ship Lists Early 1600's retrieved 28th September 2021. (Retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  23. ^ Mount Erebus, Memorial, Roll of Remembrance (Retrieved 2018, February 21st). Retrieved from http://www.erebus.co.nz/memorialandawards/rollofremembrance.aspx
  24. ^ American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550
  25. ^ The Washington Post Passenger List TWA Flight 800. (Retrieved 2018, February 15th). Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/twa800/list01.htm
  26. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  27. ^ List Of Miners - Hillcrest Mine Disaster Data. (Retrieved 2014, June 24) . Retrieved from http://www.hillcrestminedisaster.com/data/index.php?title=List_Of_Miners
  28. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  29. ^ Force Z Survivors Crew List HMS Cornwall (Retrieved 2018, February 13th) - Retrieved from https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listcornwallcrew.html#A
  30. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  31. ^ HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  32. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  33. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
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