Abbreviations used by this Site

Tempore (temp.)

Most early rolls have no specific dates for their records.

Derived the Latin word tempore, meaning "in the time of," the more commonly used abbreviated form temp. refers to the reign of a king or queen as in "temp. Edward I" or "during the reign of King Edward I."

In some cases, the original Latin form of the entry is used as in Tempore Regis Eduardi meaning "in the time of King Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)"

Using this latter example, the reader should remember that while Edward the Confessor lived from 1003-1066, he reigned England from 1042 until his death in 1066, so the entry would only reflect his time on the throne.

In some case, there was an overlap of reigns as in "temp. Henry III-Edward I."

Floruit (fl.)

Many of entries include the abbreviation fl. as in "Arthur Williams (fl.1456-1485)." Derived from the Latin verb floreo meaning "to bloom or flower," this term is more commonly undertsood to mean "when a person flourishes"  or came to be in prominence. Often a person's birth or death dates are unknown, but he or she may appear on various records during their lifetime, so in this case, Arthur Williams was seen in records from 1456 through 1485.

Circa (c.)

A Latin word that literally means "about" or "around" as in c. 1500. The other forms ca or ca. are also used throughout the histories.