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Chapman History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms



The ancestry of the name Chapman can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxon tribes of Britain. It is a name for a merchant. Chapman is an occupational surname, which belongs to the category of hereditary surnames. Occupational surnames were derived from the primary activity of the bearer. In the Middle Ages, people did not generally live off of the fruits of their labor in a particular job. Rather, they performed a specialized task, as well as farming, for subsistence. Other occupational names were derived from an object associated with a particular activity. The surname Chapman is derived from the Old English word ceapman, which means merchant. [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Arthur, William , An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names. London: 1857. Print
Therefore, this surname would have been taken by someone whose primary occupation was that of a merchant. The earliest record of someone bearing the surname Chapman in England was in Cambridgeshire, prior to the Norman Conquest in 1066.

Early Origins of the Chapman family


The surname Chapman was first found in Cambridgeshire, but early rolls proved the widespread use of the name, By example, the Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 listed Thomas le Chapman in Leicestershire and Grante le Chapman in Devon; the Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 had entries for the surname and as a trade, Alicia Shepshank, chapman; Agnes Chapman; Magota de Brandon, chapman; and Henricus Schapman. [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)

"From Kent to the North Riding the descendants of the ancient travelling merchants, or "cheap - men" (Anglo - Saxon Ce'apman) occur in singularly constant numbers. Their preference for the coast counties would seem to show that their travels were sometimes on the seas; yet it would also appear that the attractions of the great metropolis brought them together in numbers in the south - eastern counties. Kent stands foremost as their present abode. " [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
Guppy, Henry Brougham, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. 1890. Print.

To the north in Scotland, the earliest "ocurrence of the name seems to be in 1296 when a pardon was granted to a man for causing the death of Ralph Chepman in Dundee." [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
A few years later, William Chapman was provost of Aberdeen in 1327 and is probably the Willelmus dictus Chapman who appears on an inquisition in the same town in 1333. Hugh called Chepman held a land in fee in the town of Roxburgh in 1338 and King David II granted a charter of the lands of Rotherstoun near Dee to Duncan Chapman. [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)


Early History of the Chapman family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Chapman research.
Another 142 words (10 lines of text) covering the years 1359, 1367, 1359, 1387, 1396, 1507, 1559, 1634, 1780, 1853, 1559, 1634, 1616, 1621 and are included under the topic Early Chapman History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Chapman Spelling Variations


Chapman has been spelled many different ways. Before English spelling became standardized over the last few hundred years, spelling variations in names were a common occurrence. As the English language changed in the Middle Ages, absorbing pieces of Latin and French, as well as other languages, the spelling of people's names also changed considerably, even over a single lifetime. Many variations of the name Chapman have been found, including Chapman, Chappman, Chepman, Cheppman and others.

Early Notables of the Chapman family (pre 1700)


Distinguished members of the family include Sir John Chapman of Westhampnett, Sussex; George Chapman (c. 1559-1634), an English dramatist, translator, and poet; and Nathaniel Chapman (1780-1853), a well-known early American physician. George Chapman (1559-1634)...
Another 32 words (2 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Chapman Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Chapman family to Ireland


Some of the Chapman family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 119 words (8 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Chapman family to the New World and Oceana


In an attempt to escape the chaos experienced in England, many English families boarded overcrowded and diseased ships sailing for the shores of North America and other British colonies. Those families hardy enough, and lucky enough, to make the passage intact were rewarded with land and a social environment less prone to religious and political persecution. Many of these families became important contributors to the young colonies in which they settled. Early immigration and passenger lists have documented some of the first Chapmans to arrive on North American shores:

Chapman Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • Francis Chapman, who arrived in Virginia in 1608 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Ann Chapman, who landed in Virginia in 1619 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Nicholas Chapman, who arrived in Virginia in 1619 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Phillip Chapman, who landed in Virginia in 1621 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Francis Chapman, who settled in Virginia in 1623
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Chapman Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Mary Chapman, who landed in Virginia in 1701 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Anne Chapman, who arrived in Virginia in 1702 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Charles, Chapman Jr., who landed in Virginia in 1702 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Benja Chapman, who landed in Virginia in 1714 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Thomas Chapman, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Chapman Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • William T Chapman, aged 24, who landed in Connecticut in 1812 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jonathan Chapman, aged 23, who landed in Maryland in 1813 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Philip Chapman, who landed in New York, NY in 1817 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Joseph Chapman, who arrived in America in 1823 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Geo Chapman, aged 7, who arrived in America in 1829 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Chapman Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Jason Chapman, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749-1752
  • Gideon Chapman, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Win Chapman, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Stephen Chapman, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1761
  • William Chapman, aged 44, who landed in Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia in 1774
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Chapman Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • Thomas C Chapman, who landed in Canada in 1831

Chapman Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • Robert Chapman, English convict from Norfolk, who was transported aboard the "Ann" on August 1809, settling in New South Wales, Australia [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Ann voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1809 with 200 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/ann/1809
  • William Chapman, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Albion" on May 17, 1823, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Albion voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1823 with 200 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/albion/1823
  • Mustell Chapman, English convict from Cambridge, who was transported aboard the "Asia" on July 29th, 1823, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1823 with 151 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1823
  • Charles Chapman, a cooper, who arrived in New South Wales, Australia sometime between 1825 and 1832
  • Stephen Chapman, a mason, who arrived in Van Diemen’s Land (now Tasmania) sometime between 1825 and 1832
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Chapman Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • Henry Chapman, who landed in Bay of Islands, New Zealand in 1836
  • R Chapman, who landed in Hokianga, New Zealand in 1838
  • J, Chapman, who landed in Bay of Islands, New Zealand in 1840
  • James Chapman, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Whitby" in 1841
  • John Chapman, aged 23, a woollen draper, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Clifton" in 1842
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Chapman (post 1700)


  • David Chapman (1975-2017), American number one ranked player in the sport of American handball
  • Major-General Elbridge Gerry Jr. Chapman (1895-1954), American Commandant of the Parachute School (1946) [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, November 3) Elbridge Chapman. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Chapman/Elbridge_Gerry_Jr./USA.html
  • Mark David Chapman (b. 1955), American convicted murderer of John Lennon
  • George Chapman (1559-1634), English dramatist
  • Christopher Chapman CM, RCA (1927-2015), Canadian writer, director, editor and cinematographer, creator of the multi-dynamic image technique, best known for his award-winning 1967 short film A Place to Stand
  • Ernest William Chapman OAM (1926-2013), Australian bronze medalist rower at the 1952 Summer Olympics
  • Major-General John Austin Chapman (1896-1963), Australian Quartermaster-General, Army Headquarters from 1951 to 1953 [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, August 30) John Chapman. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Chapman/John_Austin/Australia.html
  • Brigadier Wilfrid Dinsey Chapman (1891-1955), Australian Chief Superintendent of Design, Army Headquarters from 1943 to 1945 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, August 30) Wilfrid Chapman. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Chapman/Wilfrid_Dinsey/Australia.html
  • Kyle Chapman (b. 1971), Former national director of the New Zealand National Front (NZNF)
  • Philip Kenyon Chapman (b. 1935), first Australian-born American astronaut [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    NASA Astronauts Homepage. (Retrieved 2010, September 27) Philip Chapman. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chapman-pk.html
  • ... (Another 10 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Chapman family



Halifax Explosion

  • Ms Johanna Chapman, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  • Mr. Harry  Chapman, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  • Mr. William  Chapman (1898-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance

HMAS Sydney II

  • Mr. William Roy Chapman (1920-1941), Australian Stoker from Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  • Mr. Neville Owen Chapman (1922-1941), Australian Ordinary Seaman from Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp

HMS Hood

  • Mr. James A Chapman (b. 1900), English Commissioned Gunner serving for the Royal Navy from Alverstoke, Hampshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm

HMS Prince of Wales

  • Mr. Albert Leonard Chapman, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html

HMS Repulse

  • Mr. Charles Edwin Chapman, British Air Mechanician 1st Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html

RMS Lusitania

  • Mrs. Ellen Elizabeth Chapman, Canadian 1st Class Passenger from Toronto, Ontario, Canada, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [18]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/

RMS Titanic

  • Mr. Joseph Charles Chapman, aged 32, English Boots from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking by escaping in life boat 9 [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html
  • Mr. Charles Henry Chapman (d. 1912), aged 52, American Second Class passenger from Bronx, New York who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html
  • Mr. John Henry Chapman (d. 1912), aged 36, English Second Class passenger from Liskeard, Cornwall who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html
  • Mrs. Sara Elizabeth Chapman (d. 1912), (née Lawry), aged 28, English Second Class passenger from Liskeard, Cornwall who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

Suggested Readings for the name Chapman


  • Chapman and Allied Families by Lena E. Sweet.
  • Chapman and Pugh Family History and Allied Lines by Minnie May Pugh.

The Chapman Motto


The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Crescit sub pondere virtus
Motto Translation: Virtue thrives under oppression.


Chapman Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Arthur, William , An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names. London: 1857. Print
  2. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  3. ^ Guppy, Henry Brougham, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. 1890. Print.
  4. ^ Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
  5. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  6. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Ann voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1809 with 200 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/ann/1809
  7. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Albion voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1823 with 200 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/albion/1823
  8. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1823 with 151 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1823
  9. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, November 3) Elbridge Chapman. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Chapman/Elbridge_Gerry_Jr./USA.html
  10. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, August 30) John Chapman. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Chapman/John_Austin/Australia.html
  11. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, August 30) Wilfrid Chapman. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Chapman/Wilfrid_Dinsey/Australia.html
  12. ^ NASA Astronauts Homepage. (Retrieved 2010, September 27) Philip Chapman. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chapman-pk.html
  13. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  14. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  15. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  16. ^ HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  17. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  18. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  19. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

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