Butler History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The Butler surname came to Ireland with the Anglo- Norman invasion of the 12th century, led by the forces of Strongbow. The surname came from a common occupational name for a wine steward or the chief servant of a medieval household. In royal households, the title denoted a high-ranking officer whose duties as a wine steward were merely nominal. Occupational surnames, such as Butler were much quite common to the Anglo-Norman culture, and virtually unknown in Gaelic Irish. The prefix le, meaning the, in French was often used by the early Strongbownians to link a person's first and name and surname. Eventually these prefixes were dropped or became fused onto the beginning of the surname. The surname Butler is derived from Anglo-French "butuiller," which comes from the Old French word "bouteillier." These words are ultimately derived from the Latin words "buticularius," and "buticula," which mean "bottle." The Gaelic form of the surname Butler is de Buitléir.

Early Origins of the Butler family

The surname Butler was first found in the ancient territory of Ormond (now parts of County Kilkenny, Wexford and north Tipperary). The first on record was Theobald FitzWalter, a distinguished Norman noble who accompanied Strongbow and was created the Chief Butler of Ireland in 1177. "He also possessed the barony of Amounderness, Lancashire, which he held in 1165 by service of one knight." [1]

"Layton, [Lancashire] is mentioned in the Domesday Survey, and in former times was of some importance as containing a mansion belonging to the ancient family of Botiller or Butler, barons of Warrington." [2] His descendents began to use the surname Butler around the year 1220. His direct descendant became Earl of Ormond in 1328 and their stronghold was Kilkenny castle. The family were rivals of the powerful Fitzgeralds and their kin, and the effective government of Ireland was held by one or the other of these two great Norman houses until the death of the Great Duke of Ormond in 1688.

Many members of the family were ardent Jacobites, including the Abbé James Butler of Nantes, who was chaplain to "Bonnie Prince Charlie" during the last Jacobite uprising of 1745. Despite the strong Irish side of the family, the English side remained strong too. Laughton-En-Le-Morthen in the West Riding of Yorkshire was the site of one such family. "Laughton Hall, the ancient seat of the Butler family, is a spacious mansion, commanding extensive views." [2]

Early History of the Butler family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Butler research. Another 131 words (9 lines of text) covering the years 1250, 1359, 1405, 1382, 1391, 1386, 1384, 1392, 1401, 1388, 1389, 1397, 1390, 1467, 1539, 1496, 1546, 1531, 1614, 1601, 1653, 1650, 1627, 1667, 1652, 1740, 1704 and 1745 are included under the topic Early Butler History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Butler Spelling Variations

A single person's name was often spelt simply as it sounded by medieval scribes and church officials. An investigation into the specific origins the name Butler has revealed that such a practice has resulted in many spelling variations over the years. A few of its variants include: Butler, Buttler, McRichard and others.

Early Notables of the Butler family (pre 1700)

Notable amongst the family up to this time was James Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormond (1359-1405), noble in the Peerage of Ireland, title was Governer of Ireland, acceded to the title in 1382 and built Gowran Castle three years later making it his usual residence, purchased Kilkenny Castle (1391) by deed from Sir Hugh le Despencer, Earl of Gloucester and Isabel his wife, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, built the castle of Dunfert (also called Danefort) and in 1386 founded a Friary of minorities at Ailesbury in Buckinghamshire, deputy to Sir Philip deCourtenay the then Lieutenant of Ireland (1384), appointed Lord...
Another 177 words (13 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Butler Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Butler World Ranking

In the United States, the name Butler is the 91st most popular surname with an estimated 226,317 people with that name. [3] However, in Canada, the name Butler is ranked the 246th most popular surname with an estimated 16,459 people with that name. [4] And in Newfoundland, Canada, the name Butler is the 12nd popular surname with an estimated 963 people with that name. [5] Australia ranks Butler as 94th with 26,467 people. [6] New Zealand ranks Butler as 147th with 3,401 people. [7] The United Kingdom ranks Butler as 98th with 48,623 people. [8]


United States Butler migration to the United States +

Ireland went through one of the most devastating periods in its history with the arrival of the Great Potato Famine of the 1840s. Many also lost their lives from typhus, fever and dysentery. And poverty was the general rule as tenant farmers were often evicted because they could not pay the high rents. Emigration to North America gave hundreds of families a chance at a life where work, freedom, and land ownership were all possible. For those who made the long journey, it meant hope and survival. The Irish emigration to British North America and the United States opened up the gates of industry, commerce, education and the arts. Early immigration and passenger lists have shown many Irish people bearing the name Butler:

Butler Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Samuel Butler, who landed in America in 1620 [9]
  • Francis Butler, who arrived in Virginia in 1624-1625 [9]
  • Geo Butler, aged 27, who arrived in Virginia in 1635 [9]
  • Gyles Butler, who landed in America in 1635 [9]
  • Jo Butler, aged 13, who arrived in Virginia in 1635 [9]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Butler Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Richard Butler, who landed in Virginia in 1701 [9]
  • Alice Butler, who landed in Virginia in 1702 [9]
  • Bridgett Butler, who arrived in Virginia in 1704 [9]
  • Edward Butler, who arrived in Virginia in 1706 [9]
  • Simon Butler, who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1710 [9]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Butler Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Anthony Butler, who arrived in Charleston, South Carolina in 1803 [9]
  • Daniel Butler, who arrived in Charleston, South Carolina in 1806 [9]
  • Eliza Butler, who landed in New York, NY in 1816 [9]
  • Andrew Butler, who arrived in New York, NY in 1816 [9]
  • George Butler, who landed in New York, NY in 1816 [9]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Butler Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Mr. John Butler, (b. 1870), aged 33, Cornish miner, from Redruth, Cornwall, UK travelling aboard the ship "Aurania" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 12th August 1903 en route to Silverton, Colorado, USA [10]
  • Mr. William Butler, (b. 1876), aged 23, Cornish miner travelling aboard the ship "St Paul" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 15th July 899 en route to Ishpeming, Michigan, USA [10]

Canada Butler migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Butler Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Edward Butler, who arrived in Halifax Nova Scotia in 1749-1752
  • John Butler, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Richard Butler, who arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Edward Butler, who landed in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1752
  • Mr. Alfred Butler U.E. who settled in Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1783 member of the Penobscot Association [11]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Butler Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Alice Elizabeth Butler, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1810
  • Catherine Butler, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1818
  • Elizabeth Alice Butler, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1818
  • Michael Butler, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1824
  • James Butler, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1825
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Australia Butler migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Butler Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Jeremiah Butler, British Convict who was convicted in Surrey, England for 14 years, transported aboard the "Earl Spencer" in May 1813, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [12]
  • Henry Butler, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Almorah" on April 1817, settling in New South Wales, Australia [13]
  • Mr. John Butler, English convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Canada" on 23rd April 1819, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [14]
  • Mr. John Butler, British Convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for life, transported aboard the "Coromandel" on 27th October 1819, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [15]
  • Mr. Joseph Butler, British Convict who was convicted in Stafford, Staffordshire, England for life, transported aboard the "Earl St Vincent" on 6th April 1820, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [16]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

New Zealand Butler migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Butler Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • J G Butler, who landed in Bay of Islands, New Zealand in 1823
  • Thomas Butler, who landed in Bay of Islands, New Zealand in 1836
  • Mr. B. Butler, Cornish settler travelling from Launceston, UK aboard the ship "Brazil Packet" arriving in New Zealand in 1836 [17]
  • John Gare Butler, aged 57, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Bolton" in 1840
  • Hannah Butler, aged 62, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Bolton" in 1840
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

West Indies Butler migration to West Indies +

The British first settled the British West Indies around 1604. They made many attempts but failed in some to establish settlements on the Islands including Saint Lucia and Grenada. By 1627 they had managed to establish settlements on St. Kitts (St. Christopher) and Barbados, but by 1641 the Spanish had moved in and destroyed some of these including those at Providence Island. The British continued to expand the settlements including setting the First Federation in the British West Indies by 1674; some of the islands include Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Island, Turks and Caicos, Jamaica and Belize then known as British Honduras. By the 1960's many of the islands became independent after the West Indies Federation which existed from 1958 to 1962 failed due to internal political conflicts. After this a number of Eastern Caribbean islands formed a free association. [18]
Butler Settlers in West Indies in the 17th Century
  • Mr. John Butler, (b. 1614), aged 21, British settler travelling from Gravesend, England aboard the ship "Falcon" arriving in Barbados in 1636 [19]

Contemporary Notables of the name Butler (post 1700) +

  • George Tyssen Butler (1943-2021), English born, American filmmaker and photographer, known for Pumping Iron, which introduced Arnold Schwarzenegger, The Endurance film trilogy, retelling Sir Ernest Shackleton’s saga of Antarctic survival, and Going Upriver: The Long War of John Kerry
  • Robert L. Butler (1927-2019), American politician, Mayor of Marion (1963-2018), the second longest-serving mayor in the United States
  • Henry Butler (1949-2018), American jazz pianist
  • Rasual Butler (1979-2018), American professional NBA basketball player
  • John "Jack" Bradshaw Butler (1927-2013), American NFL football cornerback for the Pittsburgh Steelers, inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame (2012)
  • Pierce Butler (1744-1822), American soldier, planter, and statesman, one of United States' Founding Fathers
  • Major-General William Ormond Butler (1895-1962), American Commanding General 6th Air Force (1944-1945) [20]
  • Brigadier-General Frederic Bates Butler (1896-1987), American Commanding General Granite City Engineer Department (1950) [21]
  • Robert Neil Butler (1927-2007), American physician, gerontologist, and psychiatrist awarded the 1976 Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction
  • Robert Olen Butler Jr. (b. 1945), American author and winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1993
  • ... (Another 27 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Air New Zealand Flight 901
  • Mrs. Rae Jeanne Butler (1936-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Waihi Beach, North Island, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; she died in the crash [22]
Empress of Ireland
  • Miss Rose Butler, Canadian Second Class Passenger from Toronto, Ontario, Canada who was traveling aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [23]
Halifax Explosion
  • Mrs. Ethel  Butler (1893-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [24]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Kenneth Norman Hilton Butler (1920-1941), Australian Supply Assistant from South Perth, Western Australia, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [25]
  • Mr. Stanley Wilfred Butler (1917-1941), Australian Able Seaman from Devonport, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [25]
HMS Cornwall
  • Charles James Albert Butler (d. 1942), British Stoker 1st Class aboard the HMS Cornwall when she was struck by air bombers and sunk; he died in the sinking [26]
HMS Dorsetshire
  • William Henry Blow Butler, British Warrant Officer Gunner aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk; he survived the sinking [27]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. Horace A Butler (b. 1894), English Able Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Northampton, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [28]
HMS Repulse
  • Mr. Ivor Butler, British Stoker, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [29]
  • Mr. Harry Butler, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [29]
  • Mr. John Butler, British Stoker 1st Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [29]
  • Mr. Leonard Lincoln Butler, British Bandmaster Corporal, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [29]
HMS Royal Oak
  • Albert Edward Butler (1904-1939), British Stoker 1st Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [30]
  • Albert Edward Butler (1916-1939), British Marine with the Royal Marine aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [30]
  • Albert Alfred Butler (d. 1939), British Stoker 2nd Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [30]
Pan Am Flight 103 (Lockerbie)
  • Steven Lee Butler (1953-1988), American Teacher from Denver, Colorado, America, who flew aboard the Pan Am Flight 103 from Frankfurt to Detroit, known as the Lockerbie bombing in 1988 and died [31]
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. William M. Butler, American 3rd Class passenger from New York, New York, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [32]
  • Mrs. Margaret Butler, English 2nd Class passenger from Manchester, England, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking and was recovered [32]
  • Mr. Thomas O'Brien Butler, Irish 2nd Class passenger from Ireland, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Joseph Butler, English Fireman from Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [33]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. Reginald Fenton Butler (d. 1912), aged 25, English Second Class passenger from Southsea, Hampshire who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [34]
SS Caribou
  • Mr. William Robert Butler (b. 1918), Newfoundland passenger from Trinity East, Newfoundland and Labrador was travelling aboard the railway ferry "SS Caribou" when it was struck by a German submarine torpedo on 14th October 1942, the most significant sinking in Canadian waters at that time, he died in the sinking he was travelling with his uncle Uriah Bailey
SS Newfoundland
  • Mr. John Butler (d. 1914), Newfoundlander from Pouch Cove, who on the 30th March 1914 he was part of the Seal Crew of the "SS Newfoundland" leaving the ship to intercept the Stephano which took him to the hunting grounds, he disembarked to begin sealing, but was caught in a thickening storm, attempting to return to the Newfoundland he and the 132 crew made camp for two days the sealers were stranded on the ice in a blizzard attempting to return to the ship, he died during this time
  • Mr. Valentine Butler (1888-1914), Newfoundlander from Pouch Cove, who on the 30th March 1914 he was part of the Seal Crew of the "SS Newfoundland" leaving the ship to intercept the Stephano which took him to the hunting grounds, he disembarked to begin sealing, but was caught in a thickening storm, attempting to return to the Newfoundland he and the 132 crew made camp for two days the sealers were stranded on the ice in a blizzard attempting to return to the ship, he died during this time
SS Southern Cross
  • Mr. William John Butler (1891-1914), Newfoundlander from Foxtrap who was aboard the "SS Southern Cross" when it is suspected she sank between the 31st March 1914 and early April during the storm with a heavy load of pelts; no survivors were ever found
  • Mr. William C. Butler (1886-1914), Newfoundlander from Foxtrap who was aboard the "SS Southern Cross" when it is suspected she sank between the 31st March 1914 and early April during the storm with a heavy load of pelts; no survivors were ever found
  • Mr. William Butler (1888-1914), Newfoundlander from Kelligrews who was aboard the "SS Southern Cross" when it is suspected she sank between the 31st March 1914 and early April during the storm with a heavy load of pelts; no survivors were ever found
  • Mr. Uriah Butler (1876-1914), Newfoundlander from Foxtrap who was aboard the "SS Southern Cross" when it is suspected she sank between the 31st March 1914 and early April during the storm with a heavy load of pelts; no survivors were ever found
  • Mr. Samuel Butler (1876-1914), Newfoundlander from Kelligrews who was aboard the "SS Southern Cross" when it is suspected she sank between the 31st March 1914 and early April during the storm with a heavy load of pelts; no survivors were ever found
  • ... (Another 4 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
USS Arizona
  • Mr. John Dabney Butler, American Fireman First Class from Texas, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [35]


Suggested Readings for the name Butler +

  • The Ancestry of Blanche Butler Ames and Adelbert Ames by Pauline Ames Plimpton.
  • Della Elizabeth Butler Hudson Be.
  • : Her Family and Ancestors by Martha Ann Butler.

  1. ^ The Norman People and Their Existing Descendants in the British Dominions and the United States Of America. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1975. Print. (ISBN 0-8063-0636-X)
  2. ^ Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.
  3. ^ https://namecensus.com/most_common_surnames.htm
  4. ^ https://forebears.io/surnames/
  5. ^ The order of Common Surnames in 1955 in Newfoundland retrieved on 20th October 2021 (retrieved from Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland by E.R. Seary corrected edition ISBN 0-7735-1782-0)
  6. ^ https://forebears.io/australia/surnames
  7. ^ https://forebears.io/new-zealand/surnames
  8. ^ https://www.surnamemap.eu/unitedkingdom/surnames_ranking.php?p=10
  9. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  10. ^ Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 3rd May 2018). Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_ellis_island_1892_on.pdf
  11. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  12. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 8th September 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/earl-spencer
  13. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Almorah voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1817 with 180 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/almorah/1817
  14. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 9th December 2020). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/canada
  15. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 12th March 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/coromandel
  16. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 10th September 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/earl-st-vincent
  17. ^ New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  18. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_West_Indies
  19. ^ Pilgrim Ship Lists Early 1600's retrieved 28th September 2021. (Retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  20. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, November 3) William Butler. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Butler/William_Ormond/USA.html
  21. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, November 3) Frederic Butler. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Butler/Frederic_Bates/USA.html
  22. ^ Mount Erebus, Memorial, Roll of Remembrance (Retrieved 2018, February 21st). Retrieved from http://www.erebus.co.nz/memorialandawards/rollofremembrance.aspx
  23. ^ Commemoration Empress of Ireland 2014. (Retrieved 2014, June 16) . Retrieved from http://www.empress2014.ca/seclangen/listepsc1.html
  24. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  25. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  26. ^ Force Z Survivors Crew List HMS Cornwall (Retrieved 2018, February 13th) - Retrieved from https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listcornwallcrew.html#A
  27. ^ Force Z Survivors HMS Dorsetshire Crew List, (Retrieved 2018, February 13th), https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listdorsetshirecrew.html
  28. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  29. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  30. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  31. ^ Pan Am Flight 103's victims: A list of those killed 25 years ago | syracuse.com. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2013/12/pan_am_flight_103s_victims_a_list_of_those_killed_25_years_ago.html
  32. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 7) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  33. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  34. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html
  35. ^ Pearl Harbour: USS Arizona Casualties List Pearl Harbour December 7, 1941. (Retrieved 2018, July 31st). Retrieved from http://pearl-harbor.com/arizona/casualtylist.html


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