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Payne History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms


Origins Available: English, French


The ancient Normans that arrived in England following the Conquest of 1066 are the initial ancestors from which the many generations of the Payne family have grown. The name Payne was given to a member of the family who was a person who lives in the country or a person who's religious beliefs are somewhat suspect. Checking further we found the name was derived from the Old English word paien, which was originally derived from the Latin word paganus, meaning rustic or countryman. It later also came to mean heathen and was often given to children whose baptism was delayed or, to adults whose religious zeal was not what the standards of the day indicated it should have been.

Conversely, many believe that the family claim Norman descent as in "Paganus was a Norman personal name, whence the modern Payne and Paine, as well as the more ancient Paganel and Paynel. William the Conqueror was assisted in his invasion, by several persons so designated, and in [the] Domesday Book we find among his tenants in capite, or chief holders of land, the names of Ralph Paganel and Edmund filius Pagani, i.e., Fitz-Payne. Indeed during the Norman dynasty, Paganus was one of the most common names in England." [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Lowe, Mark Anthony, Patronymica Britannica, A Dictionary of Family Names of the United Kingdom. London: John Russel Smith, 1860. Print.


Early Origins of the Payne family


The surname Payne was first found in Somerset where the aforementioned Edmund filius Pagen (Pagani) [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Williams, Dr Ann. And G.H. Martin, Eds., Domesday Book A Complete Translation. London: Penguin, 1992. Print. (ISBN 0-141-00523-8)
was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. The same source also lists the aforementioned Ralph Paganel as Radulfus Paganus, again in Somerset.

Almost one hundred years later, Reginaldus filius Pain was listed as a Templar in 1185 in Lincolnshire. The Pipe Rolls of Worcestershire list John Pane in 1190 and the Pipe Rolls of Hampshire list Robert Pain in 1200. Payn de Weston was listed in the Assize Rolls of Somerset in 1268. [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
Reaney, P.H and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. (ISBN 0-415-05737-X)

Sir John Paynell of Drax, from Yorkshire was summoned to Parliament as a Baron from the 29th of December 1299 to the 25th of August 1318. [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
Burke, John Bernard, The Roll of Battle Abbey. London: Edward Churton, 26, Holles Street, 1848, Print.
The Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 have numerous entries as a forename and surname including: Payne de Stantin in Norfolk; Robert filius Payn in Huntingdonshire; and Gilbert Payn in Essex. [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)

The parish of Stourpain in Dorset "derives its name from its situation near the river Stour, which runs on the west and south, and from one of its earliest proprietors, named Paine." [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.
"A priory of Black canons, in honour of St. James, was founded here [in Warter in the East Riding of Yorkshire] in 1132, by Geoffry Fitz-Pain." [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.


Early History of the Payne family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Payne research.
Another 176 words (13 lines of text) covering the years 1086, 1455, 1532, 1582, 1652, 1704, 1717, 1789, 1710, 1630, 1713, 1695, 1698, 1632, 1715, 1506 and 1489 are included under the topic Early Payne History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Payne Spelling Variations


The English language only became standardized in the last few centuries. For that reason, spelling variations are common among many Anglo-Norman names. The shape of the English language was frequently changed with the introduction of elements of Norman French, Latin, and other European languages; even the spelling of literate people's names were subsequently modified. Payne has been recorded under many different variations, including Payne, Paine, Paynell, Pane, Pain and others.

Early Notables of the Payne family (pre 1700)


Outstanding amongst the family at this time was Peter Payne (died 1455), English lollard and Taborite, born at Hough-on-the-Hill, near Grantham, Lincolnshire; Saint John Paine (1532-1582), English Catholic priest and martyr; Elizabeth Pain (c. 1652-1704), sometimes spelled Payne, English spinster in Boston who was brought to trial after the death of...
Another 114 words (8 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Payne Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Payne family to Ireland


Some of the Payne family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 142 words (10 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Payne family to the New World and Oceana


To escape the uncertainty of the political and religious uncertainty found in England, many English families boarded ships at great expense to sail for the colonies held by Britain. The passages were expensive, though, and the boats were unsafe, overcrowded, and ridden with disease. Those who were hardy and lucky enough to make the passage intact were rewarded with land, opportunity, and social environment less prone to religious and political persecution. Many of these families went on to be important contributors to the young nations of Canada and the United States where they settled. Paynes were some of the first of the immigrants to arrive in North America:

Payne Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • Anne Payne, who settled with her husband William and children, in Boston in 1635
  • Thomas Payne, who settled in Virginia in 1635
  • Anna Payne, aged 40, who landed in New England in 1635 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Suzan Payne, aged 11, who landed in New England in 1635 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Robert Payne, who arrived in New England in 1641 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Payne Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Jasper Payne, who landed in Pennsylvania in 1743 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)

Payne Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • William Maynard Payne, who arrived in Barbados in 1802 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Isaac Payne, who landed in America in 1805 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Elizabeth Payne, aged 40, who arrived in Massachusetts in 1812 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Joel Payne, aged 35, who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1836 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Charles Payne, who arrived in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania in 1850 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Payne Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Mr. John B Payne U.E. born in Clonmel, Ireland who settled in Fredericton, New Brunswick c. 1784 he served in the 17th Regiment Light Dragoons [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X

Payne Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • John Payne, aged 32, a farmer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "Hibernia" from Kinsale, Ireland
  • Mary Payne, aged 26, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "Hibernia" from Kinsale, Ireland
  • Miss Margaret Payne, aged 2 who was emigrating through Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec aboard the ship "Sobraon" departing 8th May 1847 from Liverpool, England; the ship arrived on 29th June 1847 but she died on board [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 92)

Payne Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • Henry Payne, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Almorah" on April 1817, settling in New South Wales, Australia [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Almorah voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1817 with 180 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/almorah/1817
  • Samuel Payne, English convict from Warwick, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on July 3, 1822, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Arab voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1822 with 155 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/arab/1822
  • Christopher Payne, English convict from Norfolk, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on February 22, 1834, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2015, January 8) Arab voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1834 with 230 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/arab/1834
  • George Payne, English convict from Southampton, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on February 22, 1834, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2015, January 8) Arab voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1834 with 230 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/arab/1834
  • John Payne, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Somersetshire" in 1839 [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) SOMERSETSHIRE 1839. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1839Somersetshire.htm
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Payne Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • George Payne, aged 29, who arrived in Port Nicholson aboard the ship "Oriental" in 1840
  • Maria Payne, aged 22, who arrived in Port Nicholson aboard the ship "Oriental" in 1840
  • William Payne, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Ashburton" in 1857
  • William Payne, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Cairngorm" in 1863
  • Joseph Payne, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Cairngorm" in 1863
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Payne (post 1700)


  • Leslie "Les" Payne (1941-2018), American pulitzer prize winning journalist, editor and columnist at Newsday, founder of the National Association of Black Journalists
  • Willie W. Payne (b. 1955), American politician, Mayor of Pontiac, Michigan, 2002-. African Methodist Episcopal [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • William Winter Payne (1807-1874), American Democrat politician, Member of Alabama State Legislature; U.S. Representative from Alabama, 1841-47 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • William Wallace Payne, American politician, Member of New York State Assembly from Cayuga County 1st District, 1859-60 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • William M. Payne, American Democrat politician, Member of Ohio State House of Representatives from Franklin County; Elected 1897 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • William J. Payne, American politician, Delegate to Kentucky secession convention, 1861 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • William H. Payne, American politician, Member of Connecticut State House of Representatives from Barkhamsted, 1870 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • Wilford Eugene Payne, American Republican politician, Candidate for Kentucky State Senate 33rd District, 1975 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • Walter Levi Payne, American Republican politician, Kansas State Treasurer, 1917-21 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • Walter Payne, American politician, Candidate for Mayor of Memphis, Tennessee, 2003 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • ... (Another 158 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Payne family



Air New Zealand Flight 901

  • Mr. Alfred Murray Payne (1945-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Remuera, North Island, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; he died in the crash

Halifax Explosion

  • Mr. Walter F. G.  Payne (1886-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance

HMAS Sydney II

  • Mr. John Robert Payne (1918-1941), Australian Sick Berth Attendant from Richmond, Victoria, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp

HMS Hood

  • Mr. John W Payne (b. 1905), English Leading Stoker serving for the Royal Navy from Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  • Mr. Harry T Payne (b. 1921), English Able Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Staines, Middlesex, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm

HMS Repulse

  • Mr. Kenneth James Payne, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking, listed as missing in action [18]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html

RMS Lusitania

  • Mr. Michael Payne, English Fireman from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 7) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  • Mr. Martin Sylvester Payne, American 2nd Class passenger from Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [20]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/

RMS Titanic

  • Mr. Vivian Ponsonby Payne (d. 1912), aged 22, Canadian First Class passenger from Montreal, Quebec who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [21]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

Suggested Readings for the name Payne


  • The Paynes of Virginia by Brooke Payne.
  • Descendants of Sanford Payne by Madge Starliper Payne.
  • Foxworth, Bush, Payne, Bledsoe & Allied Lineages by Sarah Payne Foxworth.

The Payne Motto


The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Malo mori quam foedari
Motto Translation: I would rather die than be disgraced.


Payne Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Lowe, Mark Anthony, Patronymica Britannica, A Dictionary of Family Names of the United Kingdom. London: John Russel Smith, 1860. Print.
  2. ^ Williams, Dr Ann. And G.H. Martin, Eds., Domesday Book A Complete Translation. London: Penguin, 1992. Print. (ISBN 0-141-00523-8)
  3. ^ Reaney, P.H and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. (ISBN 0-415-05737-X)
  4. ^ Burke, John Bernard, The Roll of Battle Abbey. London: Edward Churton, 26, Holles Street, 1848, Print.
  5. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  6. ^ Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.
  7. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  8. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  9. ^ Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 92)
  10. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Almorah voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1817 with 180 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/almorah/1817
  11. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Arab voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1822 with 155 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/arab/1822
  12. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2015, January 8) Arab voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1834 with 230 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/arab/1834
  13. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) SOMERSETSHIRE 1839. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1839Somersetshire.htm
  14. ^ The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 29) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  15. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  16. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  17. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  18. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  19. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 7) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  20. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  21. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

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