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French History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms


Origins Available: French , Irish


When the Anglo- Normans began to settle in Ireland, they brought the tradition of local surnames to an island which already had a Gaelic naming system of hereditary surnames established. Unlike the Irish, the Anglo- Normans had an affinity for local surnames. Local surnames, such as French, were formed from the names of a place or a geographical landmark where the person lived, held land, or was born. The earliest Anglo-Norman surnames of this type came from Normandy, but as the Normans moved, they created names that referred to where they actually resided. Therefore, English places were used for names when the Normans lived in England, and then Irish places after these particular Anglo- Normans had been settled in Ireland for some time. Originally, these place names were prefixed by "de," which means "from" in French. However, this type of prefix was eventually either made a part of the surname, if the place name began with a vowel, or it was eliminated entirely. The French family originally lived near an ash tree. The surname French was originally de Freynes and was originally derived from the word "fraxinus," which means an "ash tree." However, in some cases, the surname French is derived from residence in the country of France, a more obvious derivation. The name is sometimes spelled with a beginning of "Ff." This practice arose as many early records showed the capital "F" as "ff" in 16th and 17th centuries.


Early Origins of the French family


The surname French was first found in Devon. They were descendants of Theophilus de France who accompanied William the Conqueror into England in 1066. Robert Fitz-Stephen de France accompanied Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, on his invasion of Ireland.

Early History of the French family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our French research.
Another 86 words (6 lines of text) covering the years 1274, 1329, 1489, 1546, 1538, 1539, 1602, 1582, 1583, 1604, 1678, 1616, 1657, 1637, 1666, 1650, 1651, 1650, 1713 and 1693 are included under the topic Early French History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

French Spelling Variations


Medieval scribes and church officials spelt names simply the way they sounded, which explains the various name spelling variations of the name French that were encountered when researching that surname. The many spelling variations included: French, Frenche and others.

Early Notables of the French family (pre 1700)


Notable amongst the family up to this time was Seán an tSalainn French (1489-1546), member of one of The Tribes of Galway, Mayor of Galway (1538 to 1539); Robuck French fitz John, (died 1602), Mayor of Galway (1582-1583); Nicholas French (1604-1678), Roman Catholic Bishop of Ferns; John French (1616-1657), an English...
Another 81 words (6 lines of text) are included under the topic Early French Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the French family to the New World and Oceana


During the middle of the 19th century, Irish families often experienced extreme poverty and racial discrimination in their own homeland under English rule. Record numbers died of disease and starvation and many others, deciding against such a fate, boarded ships bound for North America. The largest influx of Irish settlers occurred with Great Potato Famine of the late 1840s. Unfortunately, many of those Irish that arrived in Canada or the United States still experienced economic and racial discrimination. Although often maligned, these Irish people were essential to the rapid development of these countries because they provided the cheap labor required for the many canals, roads, railways, and other projects required for strong national infrastructures. Eventually the Irish went on to make contributions in the less backbreaking and more intellectual arenas of commerce, education, and the arts. Research early immigration and passenger lists revealed many early immigrants bearing the name French:

French Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • Alice French who settled in Salem, Massachusetts in 1630
  • Thomas French, who landed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1631 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Stephen French, who landed in Weymouth, Massachusetts in 1634 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • John French, who settled in St. Christopher in 1634
  • Elizabeth French, who settled in Boston Massachusetts in 1635
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

French Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Philip French, who landed in North Carolina in 1702 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Thomas French, who landed in Virginia in 1714 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Benja French, who landed in Virginia in 1714 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Phillip French, who arrived in Virginia in 1719 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Katherine French, who landed in Virginia in 1723 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

French Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • Shepherd French, aged 45, who arrived in New York, NY in 1803 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jacob French, who landed in New York, NY in 1834 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • William French, who landed in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania in 1844 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Austin French, who landed in Savanna(h), Georgia in 1846 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • A French, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1850 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

French Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Mr. Albert French U.E. who settled in Canada c. 1784 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • Mrs. Charity French U.E. who settled in Saint John, New Brunswick c. 1784 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • Capt. James French U.E. (b. 1745) born in New York, USA who settled in York County, New Brunswick c. 1784 he served in DeLancey's 1st Battalion he died in 1820 in Nashwaak, New Brunswick [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • Capt. Lt. Jeremiah French Sr., U.E. (b. 1743) born in Stratford, Connecticut, USA from Manchester, Vermont, USA who settled in Eastern District, Cornwall, Ontario c. 1784 he enlisted in 1777 severd in the Queen's Loyal Rangers and the King's Royal Regiment of New York he died in 1820, married Elizabeth Wheeler they had 9 children [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • Mr. Jeremiah French Jr., U.E. who settled in Canada c. 1784 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

French Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • John French, aged 24, who arrived in Canada in 1823
  • Mary French, aged 24, who arrived in Canada in 1823
  • Sarah French, aged 2, who landed in Canada in 1823
  • Nichols French, who landed in Canada in 1828
  • Anthony French, aged 28, a gentleman, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1834 aboard the schooner "Jane" from Galway, Ireland
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

French Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • Thomas French, English convict from Warwick, who was transported aboard the "Asia" on September 3rd, 1820, settling in New South Wales, Australia [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1820 with 192 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1820
  • Thomas French, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Asia" on April 1st, 1822, settling in New South Wales, Australia [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1822 with 190 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1822
  • Isaac French, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Lady Emma" in 1837 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) LADY EMMA 1837. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1837LadyEmma.htm
  • Elizabeth French, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Lady Emma" in 1837 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) LADY EMMA 1837. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1837LadyEmma.htm
  • Sarah French, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Lady Emma" in 1837 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) LADY EMMA 1837. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1837LadyEmma.htm
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

French Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • J. French, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Phoenix" in 1860
  • Miss Emma J. French, (b. 1870), aged 3, Cornish settler departing on 13th May 1873 aboard the ship "Mary Shepherd" arriving in Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand on 20th August 1873 [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 2018, April 30). Emigrants to Lyttelton 1858-84 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/new_zealand_assisted.pdf
  • Mr. George French, (b. 1843), aged 30, Cornish farm labourer departing on 13th May 1873 aboard the ship "Mary Shepherd" arriving in Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand on 20th August 1873 [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 2018, April 30). Emigrants to Lyttelton 1858-84 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/new_zealand_assisted.pdf
  • Mrs. Mary French, (b. 1843), aged 30, Cornish settler departing on 13th May 1873 aboard the ship "Mary Shepherd" arriving in Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand on 20th August 1873 [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 2018, April 30). Emigrants to Lyttelton 1858-84 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/new_zealand_assisted.pdf
  • Mr. William French, (b. 1872), aged 1, Cornish settler departing on 13th May 1873 aboard the ship "Mary Shepherd" arriving in Lyttelton, Canterbury, New Zealand on 20th August 1873 [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 2018, April 30). Emigrants to Lyttelton 1858-84 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/new_zealand_assisted.pdf
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name French (post 1700)


  • James R. French (1928-2017), American radio presenter and producer of over 803 radio shows including The Adventures of Harry Nile and The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes series
  • Brigadier-General Charles Augustus French (1888-1982), American Commanding Officer 68th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Brigade (1943-1945) [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2012, March 5) Charles French. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/French/Charles_Augustus/USA.html
  • Ray French (1895-1978), American Major League shortstop
  • Kenneth French (b. 1954), American economist
  • Charles "Charlie" Calvin French (1883-1962), American Major League Baseball player
  • Charles K. French (1860-1952), American actor
  • Marilyn French (1930-2009), American author of The Women's Room, regarded as one of the great feminist writers
  • James B. French, American fighter pilot and flying ace in the U.S. Navy, during World War II, credited with 11 aerial victories
  • Andrew French (b. 1859), American politician, Member of Minnesota State House of Representatives, 1891-93 [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2015, November 6) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • Adonijah French, American politician, Member of Connecticut State House of Representatives from Woodbridge, 1821-23 [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2015, November 6) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • ... (Another 145 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the French family



Halifax Explosion

  • Ms Lillian French, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance

Hillcrest Coal Mine

  • Mr. Frank M French (1881-1914), Austrian Timber Packer from Kladna, Bohemia, Austria who worked in the Hillcrest Coal Mine, Alberta, Canada and died in the mine collapse [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    List Of Miners - Hillcrest Mine Disaster Data. (Retrieved 2014, June 24) . Retrieved from http://www.hillcrestminedisaster.com/data/index.php?title=List_Of_Miners

HMS Dorsetshire

  • William Herbert French (d. 1945), British Able Seaman aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk; he died in the sinking [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Force Z Survivors HMS Dorsetshire Crew List, (Retrieved 2018, February 13th), https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listdorsetshirecrew.html

HMS Hood

  • Mr. Ronald M French (b. 1920), English Stoker 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Colchester, Essex, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  • Mr. Leslie V French (b. 1922), English Ordinary Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm

HMS Royal Oak

  • Charles French (d. 1939), British Able Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html

RMS Lusitania

  • Mr. Edward Stanley French, English Fireman from Linacre, Lancashire, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 10) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  • Miss Grace Hope French, Scottish 2nd Class passenger from Scotland, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 7) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/

USS Arizona

  • Mr. John Edmund French, American Lieutenant Commander from Washington D.C., USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking

Suggested Readings for the name French


  • Ancestors and Descendants of Frank Lusk Babbott, Jr., M.D. and His Wife Elizabeth Bassett French by Harriet M. Stryker-Rodda.
  • French and Related Family Genealogy: Treadway, Barrows, Ward, Lobdell, Howland, and Brewster by Mara Treadway French.

The French Motto


The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Malo mori quam foedari
Motto Translation: I would rather die than be disgraced.


French Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  2. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  3. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1820 with 192 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1820
  4. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1822 with 190 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1822
  5. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) LADY EMMA 1837. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1837LadyEmma.htm
  6. ^ Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 2018, April 30). Emigrants to Lyttelton 1858-84 [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/new_zealand_assisted.pdf
  7. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2012, March 5) Charles French. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/French/Charles_Augustus/USA.html
  8. ^ The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2015, November 6) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  9. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  10. ^ List Of Miners - Hillcrest Mine Disaster Data. (Retrieved 2014, June 24) . Retrieved from http://www.hillcrestminedisaster.com/data/index.php?title=List_Of_Miners
  11. ^ Force Z Survivors HMS Dorsetshire Crew List, (Retrieved 2018, February 13th), https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listdorsetshirecrew.html
  12. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  13. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  14. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 10) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  15. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 7) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/


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