Clark History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name Clark comes from one of the family having worked as a person who concerned himself with matters of scholarly importance or of religious orders or as a secretary. The surname Clark originally derived from the Latin form clericus. Even today, the word and profession clerk is typically pronounced clark throughout the United Kingdom.

The name may have been Norman in origin, having descended from the name Le Clerc and generally means "a learned person-that is, one who could in old times read and write-accomplishments. " [1]

Indeed, the name was seen in early rolls in both Normandy and England. "Twenty of the name occur in 1198; of these, nine also occur in England 1199; and the families of the name generally seem to have had members in both countries." [2]

Early Origins of the Clark family

The surname Clark was first found in Hampshire where Richerius clericus was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086. A few years later, Willelm le Clerec was listed in Somerset in 1100 and Reginald Clerc was listed in the Curia Rolls of Rutland in 1205. [3]

"Absent in Wales, and scarce in most of the counties on the Welsh border. Best represented in Buckinghamshire, Essex, Leicestershire, Rutlandshire, and Nottinghamshire. " [4]

"As a surname, Clarke appears frequently to have aliased some other appellative; for instance the Baronet family, Clarke of Salford, originally Woodchurch, from the parish of that name in Kent, soon after the Conquest became Clarkes (Le Clerc) in consequence of a marriage with an heiress, and the family for some generations wrote themselves "Woodchurch alias Le Clerc," and vice versa." [1]

The Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 proved the widespread use of the name in both Latin and early English forms: Boniface Clericus, Lincolnshire; Thomas le Clerk, Lincolnshire; Batekyn Clericus, Essex; Gilbert le Clerk, Oxfordshire; and Tomas le Clerck, Buckinghamshire. [5]

Yet just over one hundred years later, the "Le" prefix was dropped and the Latin form of the name was deprecated as seen in the Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 which listed: Robertus Clarke; Beatrix Clerc; and Henricus Clerk. [5]

Early History of the Clark family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Clark research. Another 76 words (5 lines of text) covering the years 1599, 1683, 1655, 1675, 1729, 1639, 1714, 1659, 1735, 1689 and are included under the topic Early Clark History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Clark Spelling Variations

Spelling variations in names were a common occurrence before English spelling was standardized a few hundred years ago. In the Middle Ages, even the literate spelled their names differently as the English language incorporated elements of French, Latin, and other European languages. Many variations of the name Clark have been found, including: Clark, Clerk and others.

Early Notables of the Clark family (pre 1700)

Distinguished members of the family include Sir James Clark, a physician to the King; Samuel Clarke (1599-1683), an English clergyman and significant Puritan biographer; William Clerk, LL.D...
Another 26 words (2 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Clark Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Clark World Ranking

In the United States, the name Clark is the 21st most popular surname with an estimated 574,497 people with that name. [6] However, in Canada, the name Clark is ranked the 39th most popular surname with an estimated 42,977 people with that name. [7] And in Australia, the name Clark is the 28th popular surname with an estimated 49,590 people with that name. [8] New Zealand ranks Clark as 32nd with 5,668 people. [9] The United Kingdom ranks Clark as 27th with 111,235 people. [10] South Africa ranks Clark as 877th with 7,949 people. [11]

Ireland Migration of the Clark family to Ireland

Some of the Clark family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 107 words (8 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.


United States Clark migration to the United States +

Families began migrating abroad in enormous numbers because of the political and religious discontent in England. Often faced with persecution and starvation in England, the possibilities of the New World attracted many English people. Although the ocean trips took many lives, those who did get to North America were instrumental in building the necessary groundwork for what would become for new powerful nations. Among the first immigrants of the name Clark, or a variant listed above to cross the Atlantic and come to North America were :

Clark Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Nic Clark, who landed in New England in 1632 [12]
  • Nico Clark, who landed in America in 1632 [12]
  • Nicholas Clark, who arrived in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1634 [12]
  • Jo Clark, aged 20, who landed in Virginia in 1635 [12]
  • Edward Clark and Joe Clark, who both settled in Virginia in 1635
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Clark Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Eliza Clark, who landed in Virginia in 1701-1702 [12]
  • Zach Clark, who arrived in Virginia in 1701 [12]
  • Honnery Clark, who arrived in North Carolina in 1702 [12]
  • Ben Clark, who arrived in Virginia in 1703 [12]
  • Danll Clark, who landed in Virginia in 1704 [12]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Clark Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Zachariah Clark, who landed in America in 1801-1802 [12]
  • William Clark, who landed in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania in 1804 [12]
  • Patrick Clark, who landed in Louisiana in 1805-1809 [12]
  • Elnr Clark, who arrived in America in 1805 [12]
  • Francois Clark, who arrived in Louisiana in 1805-1809 [12]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Clark Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Miss Jessie Clark, (b. 1892), aged 11, Cornish settler travelling aboard the ship "Philadelphia" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 19th September 1903 en route to Pennsylvania, USA [13]
  • Mrs. Mary Clark, (b. 1849), aged 54, Cornish settler travelling aboard the ship "Philadelphia" arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 19th September 1903 en route to Pennsylvania, USA [13]
  • George Henry Clark, who arrived in Alabama in 1917 [12]

Canada Clark migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Clark Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Alexander Clark, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Alexander Clark, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Mary Clark, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Rd Clark, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Thom Clark, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Clark Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • John Clark, who landed in Canada in 1831
  • Mary Clark, aged 18, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "John & Mary" from Belfast, Ireland
  • William Clark, aged 27, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Billow" in 1833
  • Francis Clark a painter, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Zephyr" in 1833
  • Ann Clark, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Zephyr" in 1833
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Australia Clark migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Clark Settlers in Australia in the 18th Century
  • Miss Mary Clark, English convict who was convicted in London, England for 7 years , transported aboard the "Britannia III" on 18th July 1798, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [14]
Clark Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Charles Clark, British convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Calcutta" in February 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, the settlement was listed as abandoned and most of the convicts transported to Tasmania on the "Queen" in 1804 [15]
  • Mr. John Clark, British convict who was convicted in London, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Calcutta" in February 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, the settlement was listed as abandoned and most of the convicts transported to Tasmania on the "Queen" in 1804 [15]
  • William Clark, English convict from Surrey, who was transported aboard the "Ann" on August 1809, settling in New South Wales, Australia [16]
  • Miss Mary Clark, English convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Canada" in March 1810, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • Miss Mary Clark, English convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Canada" in March 1810, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

New Zealand Clark migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Clark Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Archibald Clark, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1840
  • C Clark, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1840
  • Peter Clark, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840
  • R Clark, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840 aboard the ship Tyne
  • Rice Owen Clark, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

West Indies Clark migration to West Indies +

The British first settled the British West Indies around 1604. They made many attempts but failed in some to establish settlements on the Islands including Saint Lucia and Grenada. By 1627 they had managed to establish settlements on St. Kitts (St. Christopher) and Barbados, but by 1641 the Spanish had moved in and destroyed some of these including those at Providence Island. The British continued to expand the settlements including setting the First Federation in the British West Indies by 1674; some of the islands include Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Island, Turks and Caicos, Jamaica and Belize then known as British Honduras. By the 1960's many of the islands became independent after the West Indies Federation which existed from 1958 to 1962 failed due to internal political conflicts. After this a number of Eastern Caribbean islands formed a free association. [18]
  • Mr. John Clark, (b. 1573), aged 61, British settler travelling from Gravesend, UK aboard the ship "Hopewell" arriving in Barbados on 17th February 1634 [12]
Clark Settlers in West Indies in the 17th Century
  • Mr. Richard Clark, (b. 1613), aged 21, British settler travelling from Gravesend, UK aboard the ship "Hopewell" arriving in Barbados on 17th February 1634 [12]
  • Mr. Richard Clark, (b. 1616), aged 19, British settler travelling from London, England aboard the ship "Peter Bonaventure" arriving in Barbados and St Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635 [19]
  • Geo Clark, aged 15, who arrived in Barbados in 1635 [12]
  • Gilbert Clark, aged 19, who arrived in St Christopher in 1635 [12]
  • Rich Clark, aged 19, who landed in Barbados in 1635 [12]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Clark Settlers in West Indies in the 18th Century
  • Timothy Clark, who landed in Jamaica in 1786 [12]

Contemporary Notables of the name Clark (post 1700) +

  • Roy Linwood Clark (1933-2018), American singer and musician, best known for having co-hosting Hee Haw, the nationally televised country variety show, from 1969 to 1997, inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2009
  • William Clark (1770-1838), American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor, best remembered as co-leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean
  • Cornelia Anne Clark (1950-2021), American attorney and jurist who served as a justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court from 2005 until her death in 2021
  • Elizabeth Ann Clark (1938-2021), American professor of the John Carlisle Kilgo professorship of religion at Duke University, recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship (1988)
  • Otis Clark (1903-2012), American who was the oldest living survivor Tulsa race riot, Hollywood butler to movie stars Clark Gable, Charlie Chaplin, and Joan Crawford
  • Kevin Clark (1988-2021), American actor and musician, best known for playing Freddy Jones in the musical comedy film School of Rock (2003)
  • William Ramsey Clark (1927-2021), American lawyer, activist and federal government official, 66th United States Attorney General (1966-1969)
  • Joe Louis Clark (1938-2020), American principal of Eastside High School in Paterson, New Jersey, inspiration of the 1989 film Lean on Me, starring Morgan Freeman
  • Thomas Joseph Clark Jr. (1926-2020), American politician, Mayor of Long Beach (1975-1980)
  • Dwight Edward Clark (1957-2018), American football wide receiver and football executive, inducted into the Bay Area Sports Hall of Fame (2011)
  • ... (Another 43 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Air New Zealand Flight 901
  • Mr. Wiliam Henry Clark (1912-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Takanini, Auckland, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; he died in the crash [20]
  • Ms. Iris Clark (1914-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Takanini, Auckland, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; she died in the crash [20]
  • Ms. Irene Alice Clark (1904-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Belmont, Lower Hutt, North Island, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; she died in the crash [20]
  • Mr. David Clark (1919-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Mt. Wellington, East Auckland, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus; he died in the crash [20]
Empress of Ireland
  • Mr. Thomas Clark (1891-1914), Canadian Third Class Passenger from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada who was returning to England due to Consumption and died in the sinking of the Empress of Ireland [21]
  • Mrs. Ellen Clark (1866-1914), Canadian Third Class Passenger from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada who was returning to England with son who had Consumption and died in the sinking of the Empress of Ireland [21]
  • Mr. Charles Robert Clark (1873-1914), British First Class Passenger returning from Detroit, Michigan, United States who survived the sinking on the Empress of Ireland [21]
  • Mr. Stephen Clark (1895-1914), American Third Class Passenger from Chicago, Illinois, United States who was traveling aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [21]
Flight 191
  • S Clark, American passenger from USA, who flew aboard American Airlines Flight 191 and died in the crash [22]
Frank Rock Slide
  • Mr. Alex Clark, Canadian labourer of Frank, Alberta who was buried in the Frank Rock Slide on 29th April 1903 [23]
  • Mrs. Clark, Canadian resident of Frank, Alberta who was buried in the Frank Rock Slide on 29th April 1903 [23]
  • Mr. Charles Clark, Canadian resident of Frank, Alberta who was buried in the Frank Rock Slide on 29th April 1903 [23]
  • Mr. Albert Clark, Canadian resident of Frank, Alberta who was buried in the Frank Rock Slide on 29th April 1903 [23]
  • Mr. Alfred Clark, Canadian resident of Frank, Alberta who was buried in the Frank Rock Slide on 29th April 1903 [23]
  • ... (Another 3 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Grover Shoe factory
  • Miss Dora E. Clark, American employee of the Grover Shoe factory in Brockton, Massachusetts on 20th March 1905 when the boiler exploded and collapsed the wooden building; she died [24]
Halifax Explosion
  • Mr. Amos  Clark (1908-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [25]
  • Mr. George  Clark, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [25]
Hillsborough disaster
  • Paul Clark (1971-1989), English apprentice electrician who was attending the FA Cup semi-final at Hillsborough Stadium, in Sheffield, Yorkshire when the stand allocated area became overcrowded and 96 people were crushed in what became known as the Hillsborough disaster and he died from his injuries [26]
  • Joseph Clark (1960-1989), English fork lift driver who was attending the FA Cup semi-final at Hillsborough Stadium, in Sheffield, Yorkshire when the stand allocated area became overcrowded and 96 people were crushed in what became known as the Hillsborough disaster and he died from his injuries [26]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Thomas Welsby Clark (1920-1941), Australian Able Seaman from Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [27]
  • Mr. Daniel Murchie Clark (1919-1941), Australian Acting Leading Stoker from Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [27]
HMS Dorsetshire
  • William Gordon Clark (d. 1945), British Boy Seaman 1st Class aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk; he died in the sinking [28]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. Robert G Clark (b. 1921), English Marine serving for the Royal Marine from Romford, Essex, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [29]
  • Mr. Leonard A Clark (b. 1912), English Marine serving for the Royal Marine from Whitehill, Hampshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [29]
  • Mr. John F Clark (b. 1915), English Leading Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Motcombe, North Shaftsbury, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [29]
  • Mr. Jack C P Clark (b. 1922), English Ordinary Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [29]
HMS Prince of Wales
  • Mr. William Clark, British Boy 1st Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [30]
  • Mr. Keith Hood Fergusson Clark, British Midshipman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking, also sailed aboard the HMS Exeter [30]
  • Mr. Donald Clark, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [30]
HMS Repulse
  • Mr. Victor Cecil Froggatt Clark, British Lieutenant Commander, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [31]
HMS Royal Oak
  • John Clark (d. 1939), British Able Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [32]
  • Ralph Lennox Woodrow Clark (d. 1939), British Lieutenant (E) with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [32]
  • H. Clark, British Telegraphist with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [32]
  • Frederick Henry Clark (1923-1939), British Boy 1st Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [32]
  • Albert Henry Clark (1920-1939), British Sick Berth Attendant with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [32]
  • ... (Another 1 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
RMS Lusitania
  • Master Robert James Clark, English Steward's Young Assistant from Bootle, Lancashire, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [33]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. William Clark, aged 39, English Fireman/Stoker from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping on life boat 15 [34]
  • Mrs. Virginia Estelle Clark, (née McDowell), aged 26, American First Class passenger from Los Angeles, California who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping in life boat 4 [34]
  • Mr. Walter Miller Clark (d. 1912), aged 27, American First Class passenger from Los Angeles, California who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [34]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. George Francis Clark, American Gunner's Mate Third Class from Illinois, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [35]
  • Mr. John Crawford Todd Clark, American Fireman Third Class from California, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [35]
  • Mr. Malcolm Clark, American Baker Third Class from Louisiana, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [35]
  • Mr. Robert William Clark Jr., American Fire Controlman Third Class from Pennsylvania, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [35]
Winter Quarters coal mine
  • Mr. George Albert Clark (b. 1882), American mine worker from Coalville, Summit, Utah who worked in the Winter Quarters coal mine on 1st May 1900, when 10 of the 25lb kegs of black powder exploded; he died in the explosion [36]
  • Mr. William Henry Clark (b. 1880), American mine worker from Coalville, Summit, Utah who worked in the Winter Quarters coal mine on 1st May 1900, when 10 of the 25lb kegs of black powder exploded; he died in the explosion [36]
  • Mr. William Clark Jr. (b. 1877), American mine worker from Coalville, Summit, Utah who worked in the Winter Quarters coal mine on 1st May 1900, when 10 of the 25lb kegs of black powder exploded; he died in the explosion [36]
  • Mr. Samuel Walter Clark Jr. (b. 1875), American mine worker from Coalville, Summit, Utah who worked in the Winter Quarters coal mine on 1st May 1900, when 10 of the 25lb kegs of black powder exploded; he died in the explosion [36]


The Clark Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Fortitudo
Motto Translation: Fortitude.


Suggested Readings for the name Clark +

  • Adam's Ancestors (including the Clark Family) by Thomas Nathan Clark.

  1. ^ Lower, Mark Anthony, Patronymica Britannica, A Dictionary of Family Names of the United Kingdom. London: John Russel Smith, 1860. Print.
  2. ^ The Norman People and Their Existing Descendants in the British Dominions and the United States Of America. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1975. Print. (ISBN 0-8063-0636-X)
  3. ^ Reaney, P.H and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. (ISBN 0-415-05737-X)
  4. ^ Guppy, Henry Brougham, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. 1890. Print.
  5. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  6. ^ https://namecensus.com/most_common_surnames.htm
  7. ^ https://forebears.io/surnames/
  8. ^ https://forebears.io/australia/surnames
  9. ^ https://forebears.io/new-zealand/surnames
  10. ^ https://www.surnamemap.eu/unitedkingdom/surnames_ranking.php?p=10
  11. ^ https://forebears.io/south-africa/surnames
  12. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  13. ^ Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 3rd May 2018). Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_ellis_island_1892_on.pdf
  14. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 30th October 2020). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/Britannia
  15. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 25th November 2020). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/calcutta
  16. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Ann voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1809 with 200 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/ann/1809
  17. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 9th December 2020). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/canada
  18. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_West_Indies
  19. ^ Pilgrim Ship Lists Early 1600's retrieved 23rd September 2021. (Retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  20. ^ Mount Erebus, Memorial, Roll of Remembrance (Retrieved 2018, February 21st). Retrieved from http://www.erebus.co.nz/memorialandawards/rollofremembrance.aspx
  21. ^ Commemoration Empress of Ireland 2014. (Retrieved 2014, June 16) . Retrieved from http://www.empress2014.ca/seclangen/listepsc1.html
  22. ^ Flight 191's Victims - latimes. (Retrieved 2014, April 16) . Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/1985-08-04/news/mn-4349_1_fort-lauderdale-area
  23. ^ Calgary Herald news article retrieved 11th August 2021. (Retrieved from https://smartcdn.prod.postmedia.digital/calgaryherald/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Calgary_Herald_Thu__Apr_30__1903_-copy-scaled.jpg).
  24. ^ California Digital Newspaper from 21st March 1905 (retrieved on 5th August 2021.) Retrieved from https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=SFC19050321.2.19&e=-------en--20--1--txt-txIN--------1
  25. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  26. ^ Hillsborough Victims (retreived 21st March 2021). Retreived from https://metro.co.uk/2019/04/15/remembering-96-victims-hillsborough-disaster-30-years-9206566/
  27. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  28. ^ Force Z Survivors HMS Dorsetshire Crew List, (Retrieved 2018, February 13th), https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listdorsetshirecrew.html
  29. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  30. ^ HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  31. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  32. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  33. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  34. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html
  35. ^ Pearl Harbour: USS Arizona Casualties List Pearl Harbour December 7, 1941. (Retrieved 2018, July 31st). Retrieved from http://pearl-harbor.com/arizona/casualtylist.html
  36. ^ Miners killed in Winter Quarters (retrieved 28th July 2021). Retrieved from http://www.carbon-utgenweb.com/miners.html


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