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Baldwin History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms



Baldwin is one of the names carried to England in the great wave of migration from Normandy following the Norman Conquest in 1066. It is based on the Germanic elements bald, which means bold, and wine, which means friend or protector. Early records show that Baldwin, the Count of Flanders (1172-1205), led the Fourth Crusade and became the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople (1204). Baldwin of Exeter or Baldwin of Forde (c.1125-1190) was Bishop of Worcester in 1180 and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1185 and 1190.


Early Origins of the Baldwin family


The surname Baldwin was first found in Shropshire, where this ancient family "was early seated at Diddlebury, (or Delbury,) in Coverdale, which appears to have come from the heiress of Wigley. Robert Baldwin of Diddlebury died anno 1398, and was ancestor of the family." [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Shirley, Evelyn Philip, The Noble and Gentle Men of England; The Arms and Descents. Westminster: John Bower Nichols and Sons, 1866, Print.

"The Sieur de Baudewin, whose name occurs of the Roll [of Battle Abbey] became after the battle of Hastings Catellan of Montgomery. There scarcely exists a doubt that this Norman Chief was patriarch of the ancient family of Bawdewin, or Baldwyn. " [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Burke, John Bernard, The Roll of Battle Abbey. London: Edward Churton, 26, Holles Street, 1848, Print.

"The parish [of Witsbury in Wiltshire] formed part of the possessions of Breamore Priory, founded by Baldwin de Redveriis in the reign of Henry I. It is situated on the highest land between Hants and Wilts, commanding an extensive view of the New Forest, and southward to the sea over a wide tract of fertile country." [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.

The Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 list: Stephen filius Baldewyn in Cambridgeshire; Thomas Baldwyn in Oxfordshire; Robert Baldewyne in Cambridgeshire. [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
Later, the Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 list Johannes Bawdwyn.


Early History of the Baldwin family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Baldwin research.
Another 87 words (6 lines of text) covering the years 1905, 1593, 1640, 1644, 1620, 1696, 1691, 1659, 1618, 1683, 1659, 1585, 1500, 1295, 1307 and 1659 are included under the topic Early Baldwin History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Baldwin Spelling Variations


Norman surnames are characterized by a multitude of spelling variations. The frequent changes in surnames are largely due to the fact that the Old and Middle English languages lacked definite spelling rules. The introduction of Norman French to England, as well as the official court languages of Latin and French, also had pronounced influences on the spelling of surnames. Since medieval scribes and church officials recorded names as they sounded, rather than adhering to any specific spelling rules, it was common to find the same individual referred to with different spellings. The name has been spelled Baldwin, Baldwine, Baldwyn, Baldwyne, Baldwynn and others.

Early Notables of the Baldwin family (pre 1700)


Outstanding amongst the family at this time was Charles Baldwin (born 1593) was an English politician, Member of Parliament for Ludlow (1640-1644); and his son, Sir Timothy Baldwin (1620-1696), was an English academic and lawyer from Burwarton, Shropshire...
Another 38 words (3 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Baldwin Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Baldwin family to Ireland


Some of the Baldwin family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 185 words (13 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Baldwin family to the New World and Oceana


Many English families emigrated to North American colonies in order to escape the political chaos in Britain at this time. Unfortunately, many English families made the trip to the New World under extremely harsh conditions. Overcrowding on the ships caused the majority of the immigrants to arrive diseased, famished, and destitute from the long journey across the stormy Atlantic. Despite these hardships, many of the families prospered and went on to make invaluable contributions to the development of the cultures of the United States and Canada. Early North American immigration records have revealed a number of people bearing the name Baldwin or a variant listed above:

Baldwin Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • George Baldwin who settled in Boston Massachusetts in 1620
  • Nicholas Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1622 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Hugh Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1623 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jo Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1635 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • William Baldwin, who landed in Virginia in 1635 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Baldwin Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Inc Baldwin, who arrived in Virginia in 1701 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Edward Baldwin, who landed in Maryland in 1753 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Samuel Baldwin, who landed in America in 1774 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)

Baldwin Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • Cath Baldwin, who arrived in New York, NY in 1812 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Thomas Baldwin, who landed in New York in 1822 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Daniel Baldwin, who landed in Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1838 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • John P Baldwin, aged 31, who arrived in Key West, Fla in 1838 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Benjamin Baldwin, who landed in Mobile County, Ala in 1840 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Baldwin Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Mary and Richard Baldwin were planters in 1724 in Placienta, Newfoundland [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Seary E.R., Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland, Montreal: McGill's-Queen's Universtity Press 1998 ISBN 0-7735-1782-0
  • Rebecca Baldwin, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Luke Baldwin, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Mary and William Baldwin, who settled in Harbour Grace, Newfoundland in 1765 [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Seary E.R., Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland, Montreal: McGill's-Queen's Universtity Press 1998 ISBN 0-7735-1782-0
  • Mr. John Baldwin U.E. born in Philadelphia, USA who settled in St. George, Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1783 member of the Penobscot Association [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Baldwin Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • Mary Baldwin, aged 21, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the brig "Thomas Hanford" from Cork, Ireland
  • Mrs. Mary Baldwin, aged 25 who emigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Wm S. Hamilton" departing from the port of New Ross, Ireland but died on Grosse Isle in July 1847 [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 12)
  • Mr. William Baldwin, aged 2 months who emigrated to Canada, arriving at the Grosse Isle Quarantine Station in Quebec aboard the ship "Wm S. Hamilton" departing from the port of New Ross, Ireland but died on Grosse Isle in July 1847 [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 12)
  • Mr. John Baldwin, aged 2 who was emigrating through Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec aboard the ship "Free Trader" departing 22nd June 1847 from Liverpool, England; the ship arrived on 14th August 1847 but he died on board [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 64)

Baldwin Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century

  • S J Baldwin, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1907

Baldwin Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • Maria Baldwin, English convict from Surrey, who was transported aboard the "America" on December 30, 1830, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 26) America voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1830 with 135 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/america/1830
  • William Baldwin, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Hooghly" in 1839 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) HOOGHLY 1839. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1839Hooghly.htm
  • Eliza Baldwin, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Fairlee" in 1840 [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) FAIRLIE/FAIRLEE 1840. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1840Fairlie.htm
  • Joseph Baldwin, English convict from Oxford, who was transported aboard the "Adelaide" on August 08, 1849, settling in Van Diemen's Land and Port Phillip, Australia [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 17) Adelaide voyage to Van Diemen's Land and Port Phillip, Australia in 1849 with 303 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/adelaide/1849
  • William Baldwin, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Anna Maria" in 1849 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The ANNA MARIA 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849AnnaMaria.htm
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Baldwin Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • William Baldwin, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Stately" in 1851
  • William Baldwin, aged 38, a drummer, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Inchinnan" in 1852
  • Sarah Baldwin, aged 35, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Inchinnan" in 1852
  • Michael Baldwin, aged 11, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Inchinnan" in 1852
  • James Baldwin, aged 9, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Inchinnan" in 1852
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Baldwin (post 1700)


  • Alexander Rae "Alec" Baldwin (b. 1958), Emmy, Academy Award-nominated, and Golden Globe Award-winning, American actor, perhaps best known for his portrayal as President Donald Trump
  • James Tennant Baldwin (1933-2018), American industrial designer and writer; a student and close friend of Buckminster Fuller
  • Peter Baldwin (1931-2017), American Emmy Award winning actor and director of film and television, known for his work on The Wonder Years, Sanford and Son and Newhart
  • Robert Hayes Burns Baldwin (1920-2016), American banker, Chairman of Morgan Stanley in the 1970s, United States Under Secretary of the Navy (1965-1967)
  • Caleb Cook Baldwin (b. 1820), American clergyman, one of the first Presbyterian missionaries to Foochow, China
  • Dwight Hamilton Baldwin (1821-1899), American founder of the Baldwin Piano Company in 1857
  • David Dwight Baldwin (1831-1912), American businessman, educator, and biologist from Honolulu, Kingdom of Hawaii
  • Abraham Baldwin (1754-1807), American politician, Patriot, and Founding Father from the U.S. state of Georgia
  • Brigadier-General Geoffrey Prescott Baldwin (1892-1951), American Chairman of I Section, War Department Manpower Board (1943-1946) [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, October 6) Geoffrey Baldwin. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Baldwin/Geoffrey_Prescott/USA.html
  • Stephen Andrew Baldwin (b. 1966), American actor, director, producer, and author [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Stephen Baldwin. (Retrieved 2011, January 21) Stephen Baldwin. Retrieved from http://www.stephenbaldwin.com
  • ... (Another 17 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Baldwin family



HMS Hood

  • Mr. Philip R Baldwin (b. 1924), English Ordinary Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Porthill, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  • Mr. Kenneth E G Baldwin (b. 1905), English Stoker 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Coleford, Gloucester, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm

HMS Royal Oak

  • Albert Stephen Baldwin (1905-1939), born in Battersea, London, England, British Leading Signalman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [18]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html

RMS Lusitania

  • Mr. Thomas Baldwin, English First Waiter from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  • Mr. Edgar Baldwin, English First Waiter from Wavertree, Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  • Mr. Harry Bradley Baldwin, American 1st Class Passenger from New York, New York, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  • Mrs. Mary Margaret Baldwin, (née MacCauley), American 1st Class Passenger from New York, New York, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/

Suggested Readings for the name Baldwin


  • The Baldwins: From Virginia Westward by Frank C. Baldwin.
  • The Descendants of Joseph Baldwin by Donald J. Sublette.

The Baldwin Motto


The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Je n'oublierai pas
Motto Translation: I will never forget.


Baldwin Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Shirley, Evelyn Philip, The Noble and Gentle Men of England; The Arms and Descents. Westminster: John Bower Nichols and Sons, 1866, Print.
  2. ^ Burke, John Bernard, The Roll of Battle Abbey. London: Edward Churton, 26, Holles Street, 1848, Print.
  3. ^ Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.
  4. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  5. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  6. ^ Seary E.R., Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland, Montreal: McGill's-Queen's Universtity Press 1998 ISBN 0-7735-1782-0
  7. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  8. ^ Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 12)
  9. ^ Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 64)
  10. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 26) America voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1830 with 135 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/america/1830
  11. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) HOOGHLY 1839. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1839Hooghly.htm
  12. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) FAIRLIE/FAIRLEE 1840. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1840Fairlie.htm
  13. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 17) Adelaide voyage to Van Diemen's Land and Port Phillip, Australia in 1849 with 303 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/adelaide/1849
  14. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The ANNA MARIA 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849AnnaMaria.htm
  15. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2011, October 6) Geoffrey Baldwin. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Baldwin/Geoffrey_Prescott/USA.html
  16. ^ Stephen Baldwin. (Retrieved 2011, January 21) Stephen Baldwin. Retrieved from http://www.stephenbaldwin.com
  17. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  18. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  19. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/


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