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Roger History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms


Origins Available: English , French , Welsh


The origins of the Roger surname date from the ancient Anglo-Saxon culture of Britain. Their name originated with an early member who was a fame-spear or one who was a skilled soldier. The surname Roger was originally a Germanic personal name derived from the elements hrod, or "renown" combined with geri, or "spear;" thus the name suggested "prowess with a spear." [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
The surname Roger may have derived from the Old French word Rogier. After the Norman Conquest, the Old English naming system gradually dissolved. Old English names became less common and were replaced by popular continental European names. The earliest surnames in England were found shortly after the Norman Conquest and are of Norman French rather than native English origins.


Early Origins of the Roger family


The surname Roger was first found in the Hundredorum Rolls of 1273 as Adam filius Rogeri in Lincolnshire; and Robert filius Rogeri in Norfolk. [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
Kirby's Quest of Somerset listed Waltero Rogero in Somerset, 1 Edward III (during the first year of Edward III's reign.) [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
Dickinson, F.H., Kirby's Quest for Somerset of 16th of Edward the 3rd London: Harrison and Sons, Printers in Ordinary to Her Majesty, St, Martin's Lane, 1889. Print.

Over 100 years later, the name had evolved from the early Latin versions that held either the vowel "i" or "o" to the more recent spellings we understand today. The Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 listed Willelmus Rogerson and as a personal name Rogerus Smyth. [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)

The name was "rare or absent in England north of a line drawn from the Humber to the Mersey. Scattered over the rest of England and also Wales, but generally infrequent in the eastern counties, being by far the most numerous in the western half of its area. It is most common in Herefordshire and Shropshire, and also in Cornwall." [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
Guppy, Henry Brougham, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. 1890. Print.
This author continues "Rodger is the Scotch form, it has no definite distribution. In England we only find it occasionally, as in the case of Rodgers in Derbyshire." [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
Guppy, Henry Brougham, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. 1890. Print.

From this vantage, we explored the aforementioned "Scotch" (Scottish) origin further. In this case, many of the records were recorded in the Anglo or English version rather than the previous entries that had the Latin form. "Roger was appointed abbot of Dryburgh in 1152. Roger, son of Oggou, attested a deed of middle of thirteenth century. William Roger was tenant of the abbot of Coupar-Angus in 1468." [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
Black continues "Rodgers is the more common form with Scots. Rogers, in some parts of central Scotland, is pronounced Rodgie, and some Gaelic-speaking people in Perthshire pronounce it Rougie and sometimes Royger. John Rodgers, born in Maryland, 1771, son of a Scots colonel of militia, fired with his own hand the first shot in the war with Great Britain in 1812." [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)

"The family of Rogers of Home, in Shropshire, are a cadet of the Norburys of Norbury in that county. In 7. Edward II., [(seventh year of Edward II's reign)] Roger de Norbury, son of Philip, and grandson of Roger de Norbury, had a grant of the estate of Home. His son took the name of Rogers, and his posterity under that appellation have ever since resided at Home. " [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
Lowe, Mark Anthony, Patronymica Britannica, A Dictionary of Family Names of the United Kingdom. London: John Russel Smith, 1860. Print.

Roger of Salisbury (died 1139), "also called Roger the Great, bishop of Salisbury and justiciar, was of humble origin, and originally priest of a little chapel near Caen. The future king, Henry I, chanced, while riding out from Caen, to turn aside to this chapel to hear mass. Roger, guessing the temper of his audience, went through the service with such speed that they declared him the very man for a soldier's chaplain, and Henry took him into his service." [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
Smith, George (ed), Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1885-1900. Print


Early History of the Roger family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Roger research.
Another 85 words (6 lines of text) covering the years 1550, 1618, 1583, 1658, 1602, 1598, 1655, 1630, 1684, 1636, 1682, 1684, 1620, 1621, 1690 and are included under the topic Early Roger History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Roger Spelling Variations


The English language only became standardized in the last few centuries; therefore, spelling variations are common among early Anglo-Saxon names. As the form of the English language changed, even the spelling of literate people's names evolved. Roger has been recorded under many different variations, including Rogers, Roger, Rodger, Rodgers and others.

Early Notables of the Roger family (pre 1700)


Distinguished members of the family include Richard Rogers (c.1550-1618), an English clergyman, a nonconformist under both Elizabeth I and James I; Henry Rogers (1583-1658), an English Anglican priest and writer, attended Jesus College, Oxford (1602) at the age of eighteen; Nathaniel Rogers (1598-1655), an English clergyman and early New England pastor; John Rogers (1630-1684), an English academic from Coggeshall, Essex who emigrated to America...
Another 64 words (5 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Roger Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Roger family to Ireland


Some of the Roger family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 70 words (5 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Roger family to the New World and Oceana


For many English families, the political and religious disarray that shrouded England made the far away New World an attractive prospect. On cramped disease-ridden ships, thousands migrated to those British colonies that would eventually become Canada and the United States. Those hardy settlers that survived the journey often went on to make important contributions to the emerging nations in which they landed. Analysis of immigration records indicates that some of the first North American immigrants bore the name Roger or a variant listed above:

Roger Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • James Roger, who settled in New England in 1635
  • James Roger, aged 20, settled in New England in 1635
  • James Roger, aged 20, who landed in New England in 1635 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Sym Roger, aged 20, who arrived in New England in 1635 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • John Roger, who settled in Virginia in 1642
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Roger Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Jean Roger, who arrived in Jamestown, Va in 1700 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Maurice Roger, who landed in Pennsylvania in 1732 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Thebis Roger, who arrived in Carolina in 1738 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Geo Michel Roger, who landed in Pennsylvania in 1749 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jean Roger, who settled in Charles Town in 1763-1764

Roger Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • Allen Roger, aged 46, who arrived in New York in 1812 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Peter Roger, aged 22, who landed in Missouri in 1848 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Ouerre Roger, aged 48, who arrived in New Orleans, La in 1850 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Julien Roger, aged 51, who landed in New Orleans, La in 1850 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Anna Maria Roger, aged 38, who landed in America in 1865 [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Roger Settlers in Canada in the 17th Century

  • Christophe Roger, who landed in Montreal in 1653
  • Louis Roger, who arrived in Canada in 1656
  • Mr. Denis Roger, French labourer travelling to Canada to work for Arnaud Peré arriving on 17th February 1656 [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Debien, Gabriel. Liste Des Engagés Pour Le Canada Au XVIIe Siècle. Vol. 6, Laval University, 1952. (Retreived 24th May 2018). Retrieved from https://lebloguedeguyperron.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/130-liste-des-contrats-dengagement-pour-la-nouvelle-france-releves-a-la-rochelle-entre-1634-et-1679/
  • Gabriel Roger, son of René and Jeanne, married Marie De La Cour, daughter of Guillaume and Marie, in Quebec on 30th October 1669 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Guillaume Roger, son of Guillaume and Élisabeth, married Ursule Le Vasseur, daughter of Jean and Marguerite, in Quebec on 6th January 1672 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Roger Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Louis Roger, son of Toussaint and Geneviève, married Marie-Anne Benoit, daughter of Gabriel and Marie-Anne, in Montreal, Quebec on 28th October 1709 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Jean-Louis Roger, son of François and Jeanne, married Marie-Anne-Barbe Couillaud, daughter of Philibert and Catherine, in Quebec on 4th May 1731 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Pierre Roger, son of Pierre and Thérèse, married Marie-Anne Cadoret, daughter of Pierre and Charlotte, in Quebec on 30th October 1741 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Gabriel Roger, son of Joseph and Marie-Reine, married Marie-Charlotte Boucher, daughter of Jean-François and Geneviève, in Quebec on 12th April 1746 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • François Roger, son of Jacques and Rose, married Marie-Jeanne Boutin, daughter of Pierre and Marie-Jeanne, in Montreal, Quebec on 7th January 1758 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Roger Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • John Roger, aged 24, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Protector" in 1834

Roger Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • Eli Roger, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Isabella Watson" in 1846 [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) ISABELLA WATSON 1846. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1846IsabellaWatson.htm
  • George Roger, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Sir Edward Parry" in 1849 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The SIR EDWARD PARRY 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849SirEdwardParry.htm
  • George Roger, aged 22, a farm labourer, who arrived in South Australia in 1849 aboard the ship "Sir Edward Parry" [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The SIR EDWARD PARRY 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849SirEdwardParry.htm
  • Mr. William Roger, Cornish farm labourer departing from Soton on 18th November 1862 aboard the ship "Ivanhoe" arriving in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia on 26th February 1863 [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 3rd May 2018). Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_australia_victoria.pdf
  • Mrs. Ann Roger, Cornish settler departing from Soton on 18th November 1862 aboard the ship "Ivanhoe" arriving in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia on 26th February 1863 [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 3rd May 2018). Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_australia_victoria.pdf

Roger Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • Mrs. Roger, Australian settler travelling from Sydney with 2 children aboard the ship "Deborah" arriving in Auckland, New Zealand in 1842 [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mr. R. Roger, Scottish settler travelling from Glasgow aboard the ship "Three Bells" arriving in Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand on 13th July 1858 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 26th March 2019). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mrs. Roger, Scottish settler with 4 sons and 3 daughters travelling from Glasgow aboard the ship "Three Bells" arriving in Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand on 13th July 1858 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 26th March 2019). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mr. Alexander Roger, Scottish settler travelling from Greenock aboard the ship "Nelson" arriving in Port Chalmers, Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand on 31st December 1874 [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html

Contemporary Notables of the name Roger (post 1700)


  • Jean-Baptiste Roger de Lacoustande, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean-Baptiste Roger. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Mr. Paul Roger Ludwig M.V.O.,, British former The Queen's Bargemaster, was appointed the Member of the Royal Victorian Order on 8th June 2018 [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    "Birthday and New Year Honours Lists (1940 to 2019)." Issue 62507, 28 December 2018 | London Gazette, The Gazette, Dec. 2018, www.thegazette.co.uk/honours-lists
  • William Roger Revelle (b. 1944), American psychology professor at Northwestern University working in personality psychology
  • Benjamin Roger Massing (1962-2017), Cameroonian footballer for the Cameroon National Team (1987-1992)
  • W. Roger Fetter, American Republican politician, Alternate Delegate to Republican National Convention from Pennsylvania, 1956 [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2015, November 2) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  • Björn Roger Bengtsson (b. 1973), Swedish actor
  • Leslie Roger Wootton (1944-2017), English aeronautical engineer and balloonist, Dean of engineering for City University
  • Mark Roger Wilkinson OBE OLM (1950-2017), English furniture designer, founding designer of Mark Wilkinson Furniture and Smallbone of Devizes
  • Henry Roger Tempest (1924-2017), English landowner who held Broughton Hall, in the Craven district of North Yorkshire
  • Burnie Roger Crabtree (b. 1947), American Democrat politician, Member of West Virginia State House of Delegates, 1975-80, 1983-84 [18]CITATION[CLOSE]
    The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 27) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html

The Roger Motto


The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Nos Nostraque Deo
Motto Translation: We and ours to God.


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Citations


  1. ^ Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
  2. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  3. ^ Dickinson, F.H., Kirby's Quest for Somerset of 16th of Edward the 3rd London: Harrison and Sons, Printers in Ordinary to Her Majesty, St, Martin's Lane, 1889. Print.
  4. ^ Guppy, Henry Brougham, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. 1890. Print.
  5. ^ Lowe, Mark Anthony, Patronymica Britannica, A Dictionary of Family Names of the United Kingdom. London: John Russel Smith, 1860. Print.
  6. ^ Smith, George (ed), Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1885-1900. Print
  7. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  8. ^ Debien, Gabriel. Liste Des Engagés Pour Le Canada Au XVIIe Siècle. Vol. 6, Laval University, 1952. (Retreived 24th May 2018). Retrieved from https://lebloguedeguyperron.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/130-liste-des-contrats-dengagement-pour-la-nouvelle-france-releves-a-la-rochelle-entre-1634-et-1679/
  9. ^ Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  10. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) ISABELLA WATSON 1846. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1846IsabellaWatson.htm
  11. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The SIR EDWARD PARRY 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849SirEdwardParry.htm
  12. ^ Cornwall Online Parish Clerks. (Retrieved 3rd May 2018). Retrieved from http://www.opc-cornwall.org/Resc/pdfs/emigration_australia_victoria.pdf
  13. ^ New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  14. ^ New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 26th March 2019). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  15. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean-Baptiste Roger. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  16. ^ "Birthday and New Year Honours Lists (1940 to 2019)." Issue 62507, 28 December 2018 | London Gazette, The Gazette, Dec. 2018, www.thegazette.co.uk/honours-lists
  17. ^ The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2015, November 2) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html
  18. ^ The Political Graveyard: Alphabetical Name Index. (Retrieved 2016, January 27) . Retrieved from http://politicalgraveyard.com/alpha/index.html


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