Turner History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

Turner is a name that came to England in the 11th century wave of migration that was set off by the Norman Conquest of 1066. Turner is a name for a lathe worker. The surname Turner was originally derived from the Old French verb tourneour, meaning to turn on a lathe. Such a craftsman would have fashioned basically cylindrical objects out of wood, metal, and bone. [1]

Early Origins of the Turner family

The surname Turner was first found in Oxfordshire in midland England but was found throughout England. "It is well represented in the midlands, especially in Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Staffordshire, and is also numerous in Lancashire." [2] Mark Antony Lower in his source Patronymica Britannica suggests that the name is all "out of all proportion, to the number of persons engaged in the trade" of the lathe. He argues that the family may have first appeared before the Conquest in a grant to the monastery of Croyland, in 1051, being signed, among others, by a Turnerus Capellanus. [3] Moreover, the family was also quite numerous in Scotland from early times.

The Hundredorum Rolls list: Aylbricht le Turnur in London in 1271; Geoffrey le Turner in Cambridgeshire; and William le Tumor in Oxfordshire. The latter two listings were probably made in 1273. The Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 list Johannes Tumour, turnour. Ironically there are very few listings in the early rolls of the trade. Calendarium Rotulorum Originalium listed William le Tournour and Kirby's Quest listed Henry le Tornour in Somerset during the first year of Edward III reign. [4] [1]

In Scotland, "a family of this name had possession of the estate of Ardwall in the parish of New Abbey for many generations." [5] Black continues Thomas dictus Tumour held land in Aberdeen in 1382; John Turnoure held land in Irvine in 1426; William Tumour, merchant of Scotland, had a safe conduct in England, 1473; William Turnoure is recorded in Edinburgh, 1482.

Early History of the Turner family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Turner research. Another 187 words (13 lines of text) covering the years 1180, 1191, 1300, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1575, 1626, 1575, 1585, 1677, 1591, 1672, 1617, 1676, 1707, 1607, 1675, 1638, 1700, 1645, 1714, 1688, 1714, 1615, 1693, 1662, 1663, 1668, 1669, 1623, 1691, 1735 and are included under the topic Early Turner History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Turner Spelling Variations

Before the advent of the printing press and the first dictionaries, the English language was not standardized. Sound was what guided spelling in the Middle Ages, so one person's name was often recorded under several variations during a single lifetime. Spelling variations were common, even among the names of the most literate people. Known variations of the Turner family name include Turner, Turnerus, Turnor, Turnour, Turnoure and many more.

Early Notables of the Turner family (pre 1700)

Outstanding amongst the family at this time was Cyril Tourneur, Turnour or Turner (1575?-1626), English dramatist, born about 1575, probably a near relative and possibly the son of Captain Richard Turnor or Turner; Sir Timothy Turner SL JP (1585-1677), an English judge; Thomas Turner (1591-1672), an English Royalist churchman and Dean of Canterbury; Sir Edward Turnor or Turnour (1617-1676), Speaker of the House of Commons of England; Sir Edmund Turnor (died 1707) of Stoke Rochford, Lincolnshire; Sir Christopher Turnor (1607-1675), an English judge, knight and Royalist; Francis Turner D.D. (c. 1638-1700), English...
Another 92 words (7 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Turner Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Turner World Ranking

In the United States, the name Turner is the 44th most popular surname with an estimated 378,024 people with that name. [6] However, in Canada, the name Turner is ranked the 111st most popular surname with an estimated 26,409 people with that name. [7] And in Australia, the name Turner is the 37th popular surname with an estimated 45,848 people with that name. [8] New Zealand ranks Turner as 28th with 5,764 people. [9] The United Kingdom ranks Turner as 28th with 109,971 people. [10]

Ireland Migration of the Turner family to Ireland

Some of the Turner family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 57 words (4 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.


United States Turner migration to the United States +

To escape the political and religious chaos of this era, thousands of English families began to migrate to the New World in search of land and freedom from religious and political persecution. The passage was expensive and the ships were dark, crowded, and unsafe; however, those who made the voyage safely were encountered opportunities that were not available to them in their homeland. Many of the families that reached the New World at this time went on to make important contributions to the emerging nations of the United States and Canada. Research into various historical records has revealed some of first members of the Turner family to immigrate North America:

Turner Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • William Turner who settled in Maine in 1607
  • Henry Turner, who settled in Virginia in 1615
  • Robert Turner, who was on record in Virginia in 1619
  • Abraham Turner, who arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620
  • John Turner, his wife and two sons arrived in Plymouth in 1620
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Turner Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Andrew Turner, who landed in Virginia in 1701 [11]
  • Charles Turner, who landed in Virginia in 1705 [11]
  • James Turner, who arrived in Georgia in 1733 [11]
  • Alexander Turner, who landed in New England in 1738 [11]
  • John Turner and his wife Elizabeth Turner, who arrived at Philadelphia in 1742
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Turner Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Bartlett Turner, who arrived in New York, NY in 1811 [11]
  • Bartholomew Turner, aged 27, who landed in New York in 1812 [11]
  • Cath Turner, who landed in New York, NY in 1812 [11]
  • Duncan Turner, who landed in New York in 1820 [11]
  • Frederick Turner, who landed in New York in 1849 [11]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Turner Settlers in United States in the 20th Century
  • Alfred Turner, who arrived in Mississippi in 1902 [11]
  • Albert Harry Turner, who arrived in Alabama in 1921 [11]

Canada Turner migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Turner Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Francis Turner, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Eleonora Turner, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1757
  • William Turner, who settled in Bonavista, Newfoundland in 1765 [12]
  • Mr. Edward Turner U.E. who settled in Western District [The townships of Essex County and Kent County], Ontario c. 1778 arrived with 2 children [13]
  • Private. Holden Turner U.E. who settled in Lincoln, Sunbury County, New Brunswick c. 1783 was passenger number 466 aboard the ship "HMS Clinton", picked up on November 14, 1783 at East River, New York, USA arriving in Port Roseway [Shelburne], Nova Scotia on December 13, 1783 he served in the 22nd Regiment of Foot [13]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Turner Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Daniel Turner, who landed in Canada in 1832
  • John Turner, aged 25, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Edward Reid" in 1833
  • Agnes Turner, aged 23, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Neptune" in 1834
  • William Turner, aged 20, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Perseus" in 1834
  • John Turner, aged 20, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Perseus" in 1834
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Australia Turner migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Turner Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. David Turner, British Convict who was convicted in London, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Earl Cornwallis" in August 1800, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [14]
  • Mr. James Turner, (Roberts, Richard), British convict who was convicted in Parkhurst, Newport, Isle of Wight for life, transported aboard the "Duke of Portland" in January 1807, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [15]
  • Mr. George Turner, (b. 1790), aged 23, English labourer who was convicted in Maidstone, Kent, England for life for highway robbery, transported aboard the "Earl Spencer" in May 1813, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, he died in 1872 [16]
  • Mr. Francis Turner, (Chappel), English convict who was convicted in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England for life, transported aboard the "Atlas" on 16th January 1816, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • Mr. Thomas Turner, English convict who was convicted in Surrey, England for life, transported aboard the "Atlas" on 16th January 1816, arriving in New South Wales, Australia [17]
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

New Zealand Turner migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Turner Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Peter Turner, who landed in Friendly Island, NZ, New Zealand in 1830
  • W Turner, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1834
  • Thomas Turner, who landed in Bay of Islands, New Zealand in 1836
  • Benjamin Turner, who landed in Bay of Islands, New Zealand in 1836
  • W Turner, who landed in Waipa River, New Zealand in 1839
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

West Indies Turner migration to West Indies +

The British first settled the British West Indies around 1604. They made many attempts but failed in some to establish settlements on the Islands including Saint Lucia and Grenada. By 1627 they had managed to establish settlements on St. Kitts (St. Christopher) and Barbados, but by 1641 the Spanish had moved in and destroyed some of these including those at Providence Island. The British continued to expand the settlements including setting the First Federation in the British West Indies by 1674; some of the islands include Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Island, Turks and Caicos, Jamaica and Belize then known as British Honduras. By the 1960's many of the islands became independent after the West Indies Federation which existed from 1958 to 1962 failed due to internal political conflicts. After this a number of Eastern Caribbean islands formed a free association. [18]
Turner Settlers in West Indies in the 17th Century
  • Mr. Thomas Turner, (b. 1610), aged 25, British settler traveling aboard the ship "Matthew" arriving in St Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635 [19]
  • Mr. Mathew Turner, (b. 1589), aged 46, British settler traveling aboard the ship "Paul of London" arriving in St Christopher (Saint Kitts) in 1635 [19]

Contemporary Notables of the name Turner (post 1700) +

  • Loyce W. Turner (1927-2021), American politician, Member of the Georgia State Senate (1975-1998)
  • Douglas Laird Turner (1932-2018), American rower who competed in the men's coxed four event at the 1956 Summer Olympics
  • Charles H. Turner (1936-2018), American lawyer, United States Attorney for the District of Oregon (1982-1993)
  • Pete Turner (1934-2017), American photographer, one of the 20 most influential photographers of all time and in 1981 the American Society of Media Photographers
  • Stansfield M. Turner (1923-2018), American Rhodes Scholar, 12th Director of Central Intelligence (1977-1981), 37th President of the Naval War College (1972-1974)
  • Molly Turner (1923-2016), American Emmy Award-winning television reporter and television news anchor
  • Walter Raymond "Ret" Turner (1929-2016), American costume designer, best known for his work for Cher, Lucille Ball, Barry Manilow, Shirley Booth, Lily Tomlin, Marie Osmond and many more
  • Barbara Turner (1936-2016), American two-time Primetime Emmy Award nominated screenwriter and actress, known for The Company (2003), Pollock (2000) and Hemingway & Gellhorn (2012)
  • Paul Kevin Turner (1969-2016), American NFL football fullback
  • Morris "Morrie" Turner (1923-2014), the first nationally syndicated African American cartoonist, best known for his strip Wee Pals
  • ... (Another 37 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Arrow Air Flight 1285
  • Mr. Vincent L Turner (b. 1958), American Sergeant from Huntsville, Alabama, USA who died in the crash [20]
Bradford City stadium fire
  • Sarah Turner (1969-1985), from Bingley who attended the Bradford City and Lincoln City Third Division match on 11th May 1985 when the Bradford City stadium fire occurred and she died in the fire
  • Howard Turner (1944-1985), from Bingley who attended the Bradford City and Lincoln City Third Division match on 11th May 1985 when the Bradford City stadium fire occurred and he died in the fire
Empress of Ireland
  • Mr. Joseph Turner, British Assistant Cook from United Kingdom who worked aboard the Empress of Ireland and survived the sinking [21]
  • Mr. Joseph Henry Turner (1890-1914), Canadian Third Class Passenger from Calgary, Alberta, Canada who was traveling aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [21]
Fraterville mine
  • Mr. Milburn Turner, American coal miner at Fraterville mine in Tennessee, on the 19th May 1902 when an explosion collapsed the mine; he died [22]
Grover Shoe factory
  • Mr. J. Victor Turner (b. 1866), American former city councilman working at the Grover Shoe factory in Brockton, Massachusetts on 20th March 1905 when the boiler exploded and collapsed the wooden building; he died [23]
Halifax Explosion
  • Mr. Henry  Turner (1855-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [24]
  • Mrs. Turner, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [24]
  • Mr. N  Turner, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [24]
  • Mr. Harold  Turner, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [24]
  • Mr. Allen A  Turner (1897-1917), Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [24]
Hillcrest Coal Mine
  • Mr. William Turner (1879-1914), English Miner from Wigan, Lancashire,, England, United Kingdom who worked in the Hillcrest Coal Mine, Alberta, Canada and died in the mine collapse [25]
  • Mr. Thomas Turner (1883-1914), English Miner from Wigan, Lancashire,, England, United Kingdom who worked in the Hillcrest Coal Mine, Alberta, Canada and died in the mine collapse [25]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Harold Turner (1911-1941), Australian Signalman from Kingsford, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [26]
  • Mr. Kenneth James Turner (1921-1941), Australian Ordinary Seaman from Frankston, Victoria, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [26]
  • Mr. George Alfred Turner (1923-1941), Australian Ordinary Seaman 2nd Class from West Brunswick, Victoria, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [26]
  • Mr. William Ross Turner (1920-1941), Australian Able Seaman from Subiaco, Western Australia, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [26]
HMS Dorsetshire
  • Peter Turner, British crew member aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk; he survived the sinking [27]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. John Turner (b. 1920), English Stoker 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Cheadle, Staffordshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [28]
  • Mr. George H F Turner (b. 1917), Scottish Stoker 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Rosyth, Fife, Scotland, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [28]
  • Mr. George F Turner (b. 1918), English Stoker 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Winton, Bournemouth, Hampshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [28]
HMS Prince of Wales
  • Mr. Wilfred B Turner, British Able Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [29]
  • Mr. Robert Turner, British Engine Room Artificer 5th Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [29]
  • Mr. Percy P Turner, British Cook, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [29]
  • Mr. James Turner, British Ordinary Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [29]
  • Mr. James Crowley Turner, British Corporal, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [29]
HMS Repulse
  • Mr. Harold Turner, British Stoker 1st Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [30]
  • Mr. George Turner, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [30]
  • Mr. James Turner, British Leading Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [30]
  • Mr. Lionel Turner, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [30]
  • Mr. Herbert Lewis Turner, British Leading Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [30]
  • ... (Another 2 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
HMS Royal Oak
  • Reginald A. Turner, British Marine with the Royal Marine aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [31]
  • Sidney Victor Turner (1920-1939), British Stoker 2nd Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [31]
Lady of the Lake
  • Mr. John Turner, Irish traveller from County Tyrone, Ireland who sailed aboard the "Lady of the Lake" from Greenock, Scotland on 8th April 1833 to Quebec, Canada when the ship hit ice and sunk of the coast of Newfoundland on the 11th May 1833 and he survived the sinking
RMS Lusitania
  • Captain William Thomas Turner, English Captain from Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Joseph Turner, English Trimmer from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [32]
  • Mr. Scott Turner, American 1st Class Passenger from Lansing, Michigan, USA, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [33]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. Leopold Turner (d. 1912), aged 28, English First Class Saloon Steward from Southampton, Hampshire (Shropshire) who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [34]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Richard N. Turner Jr., American Seaman First Class working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he survived the sinking [35]


Suggested Readings for the name Turner +

  • Gibson, McCormick, Turner Genealogy by F. McCormick.
  • Meshack Turner III, His Wife Sarah Robey Tucker by Lucille R. Maddox.
  • Book I, Descendants of Benjamin Turner, Mariner, 1721-1985 and Book II, Allied Ancestors and Cousins by Susan Hewitt Pierson.

  1. ^ Bardsley, C.W, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames: With Special American Instances. Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1901. Print. (ISBN 0-900455-44-6)
  2. ^ Guppy, Henry Brougham, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. 1890. Print.
  3. ^ Lower, Mark Anthony, Patronymica Britannica, A Dictionary of Family Names of the United Kingdom. London: John Russel Smith, 1860. Print.
  4. ^ Dickinson, F.H., Kirby's Quest for Somerset of 16th of Edward the 3rd London: Harrison and Sons, Printers in Ordinary to Her Majesty, St, Martin's Lane, 1889. Print.
  5. ^ Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
  6. ^ https://namecensus.com/most_common_surnames.htm
  7. ^ https://forebears.io/surnames/
  8. ^ https://forebears.io/australia/surnames
  9. ^ https://forebears.io/new-zealand/surnames
  10. ^ https://www.surnamemap.eu/unitedkingdom/surnames_ranking.php?p=10
  11. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  12. ^ Seary E.R., Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland, Montreal: McGill's-Queen's Universtity Press 1998 ISBN 0-7735-1782-0
  13. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  14. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 13th August 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/earl-cornwallis
  15. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 28th July 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/duke-of-portland
  16. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 8th September 2021). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/earl-spencer
  17. ^ Convict Records Voyages to Australia (Retrieved 14th July 2020). Retrieved from https://convictrecords.com.au/ships/atlas
  18. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_West_Indies
  19. ^ Pilgrim Ship's of 1600's (Retrieved October 4th 2021, retrieved from https://www.packrat-pro.com/ships/shiplist.htm)
  20. ^ American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550
  21. ^ Commemoration Empress of Ireland 2014. (Retrieved 2014, June 17) . Retrieved from http://www.empress2014.ca/seclangen/listepsc1.html
  22. ^ News paper article Fraterville Mine Disaster retrieved on 6th August 2021. (Retrieved from http://www.tn.gov/tsla/exhibits/disasters/fraterville.htm).
  23. ^ California Digital Newspaper from 21st March 1905 (retrieved on 5th August 2021.) Retrieved from https://cdnc.ucr.edu/?a=d&d=SFC19050321.2.19&e=-------en--20--1--txt-txIN--------1
  24. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  25. ^ List Of Miners - Hillcrest Mine Disaster Data. (Retrieved 2014, June 24) . Retrieved from http://www.hillcrestminedisaster.com/data/index.php?title=List_Of_Miners
  26. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  27. ^ Force Z Survivors HMS Dorsetshire Crew List, (Retrieved 2018, February 13th), https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listdorsetshirecrew.html
  28. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  29. ^ HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  30. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  31. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  32. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 7) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  33. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  34. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html
  35. ^ Pearl Harbour: USS Arizona Casualties List Pearl Harbour December 7, 1941. (Retrieved 2018, July 31st). Retrieved from http://pearl-harbor.com/arizona/casualtylist.html


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