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Armstrong History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms



From the historical and enchanting region of Scotland emerged a multitude of noble families, including the distinguished Armstrong family. The Armstrong surname is thought to come from the Middle English words "strong" and "arm," and has also been rendered in Gaelic as MacGhillielaidir.


Early Origins of the Armstrong family


The surname Armstrong was first found in Cumberland. This well known Border surname is derived from the Norman surname "Fortenbras" and is an instance of a surname assumed from a personal attribute, strength of arm.

It is said that a Fairbairn, armour bearer to the King of Scotland, lifted the King back onto his horse with one arm, after the King had been unseated in battle. The King then granted him lands in Liddesdale and bestowed on him the name of Armstrong. Although this legend may be true in part, the Armstrongs were of greater nobility than armour bearers.

Perhaps the earliest recorded record is of Adam Armstrong, who was pardoned at Carlisle in 1235 for causing the death of another man. William Armestrangh served on an inquisition in the same city in 1274. [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
Some of the family were found in the burgh of Langholm, Dumfries in early times. "This place derives its name from the level lands, or holms, here, on the river Esk; and appears to have been indebted for its origin to the erection of an ancient border fortress by the powerful family of the Armstrongs, of which fortress the ruins are still in tolerable preservation." [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.


Early History of the Armstrong family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Armstrong research.
Another 260 words (19 lines of text) covering the years 1328, 1342, 1363, 1376, 1529, 1587, 1610, 1602, 1658, 1662, 1633, 1684, 1683, 1672 and are included under the topic Early Armstrong History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Armstrong Spelling Variations


Spelling variations of this family name include: Armstrong, Armstrang, Armestrang, Harmestrang and many more.

Early Notables of the Armstrong family (pre 1700)


Notable among the family at this time was William Armstrong (c.1602-c.1658), known as Christie's Will, a Scottish Borders freebooter of the 17th century, celebrated in a ballad by Sir Walter Scott; Colonel Sir Thomas Armstrong (died 1662), a Scottish soldier who fought in the 30 Years War in the Netherlands, a...
Another 77 words (6 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Armstrong Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Armstrong family to Ireland


Some of the Armstrong family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 98 words (7 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Armstrong family to the New World and Oceana


Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Armstrong Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • Katherin Armstrong, who arrived in America in 1635 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Gregory Armstrong, who arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1643 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Margarett Armstrong, who landed in Maryland in 1650 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Fra Armstrong, who landed in Virginia in 1652 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Geo Armstrong, who landed in Virginia in 1654 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Armstrong Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Christiann Armstrong, who landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1710 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • David Armstrong, who landed in Charleston, South Carolina in 1717 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • David Armstrong, who arrived in Charles Town [Charleston], South Carolina in 1717
  • John William Armstrong, who landed in Charleston, South Carolina in 1717 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Rufus Armstrong, who arrived in Charleston, South Carolina in 1717 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Armstrong Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • Mathw Armstrong, aged 23, who landed in Delaware in 1803 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Joseph Armstrong, who landed in America in 1803 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Charles Armstrong, who landed in New York, NY in 1803 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Alexander Armstrong, aged 29, who landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1803 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Alexander Armstrong, aged 29, who arrived in America in 1803 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Armstrong Settlers in United States in the 20th Century

  • John Robert Armstrong, who arrived in Wisconsin in 1908 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • William Smith Armstrong, who arrived in Wisconsin in 1918 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)

Armstrong Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Andrew Armstrong, who was constable of the Ferryland district, Newfoundland, in 1730 [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Seary E.R., Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland, Montreal: McGill's-Queen's Universtity Press 1998 ISBN 0-7735-1782-0
  • Christopher Armstrong, who arrived in Prince Edward Island in 1774
  • Mr Al Welch Armstrong, U.E., United Empire Loyalist, who settled in Edwardsburgh [Township of Edwardsburgh/Cardinal], Ontario c. 1783 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • Mr Edward Armstrong, U.E., United Empire Loyalist, who settled in Canada c. 1783 order in council May 12, 1808 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • Mr Jesse Armstrong, U.E., United Empire Loyalist, who settled in Canada c. 1783 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Armstrong Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • Elizabeth Armstrong, who arrived in Canada in 1823
  • Jane Armstrong, who landed in Canada in 1823
  • Janny Armstrong, who arrived in Canada in 1823
  • Margaret Armstrong, who arrived in Canada in 1823
  • Rebecca Armstrong, who landed in Canada in 1823
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Armstrong Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • Charles Armstrong "Charles Johnston", aged 18, Irish convict from Tyrone, who was transported aboard the "Almorah" on August 24, 1820, settling in New South Wales, Australia [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Almorah voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1820 with 4 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/almorah/1820
  • John Armstrong, Scottish convict from Glasgow, who was transported aboard the "Asia" on September 3rd, 1820, settling in New South Wales, Australia [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1820 with 192 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1820
  • John Armstrong, a plasterer, who arrived in New South Wales, Australia sometime between 1825 and 1832
  • John Armstrong, aged 30, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Palmyra" in 1839 [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) PALMYRA 1839. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1839Palmyra.htm
  • Veronica Armstrong, aged 29, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Palmyra" in 1839 [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) PALMYRA 1839. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1839Palmyra.htm
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Armstrong Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • Robert Armstrong, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1840
  • John Armstrong, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Whitby" in 1841
  • Aurora Armstrong, aged 22, who arrived in Nelson, New Zealand aboard the ship "Indus" in 1843
  • Martha Armstrong, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "Lord Burleigh" in 1856
  • Douglas Armstrong, aged 38, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Alma" in 1857
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Armstrong (post 1700)


  • Neil Alden Armstrong (1930-2012), AmericanNASA astronaut, first person to set foot on the moon and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    NASA Astronauts Homepage. (Retrieved 2010, September 27) Neil Armstrong. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/armstrong-na.html
  • Lord William Armstrong (1810-1900), Scottish industrialist, engineer, inventor of the hydraulic crane and the Armstrong gun; his house at Cragside was the first in the world to be lit by hydro-electricity, he later he acquired Bamburgh Castle, still owned by the family
  • Joan Bernard Armstrong (d. 2018), American jurist, the first woman elected to serve as a judge in Louisiana and first African-American to serve as chief judge of the state's Fourth Circuit Court of Appeal
  • Neill Ford Armstrong (1926-2016), American NFL and CFL football player and coach
  • William Lester "Bill" Armstrong (1937-2016), American businessman and politician, United States Senator from Colorado (1979-1991)
  • Theodore Robert "Bob" Armstrong (1933-2016), American basketball player who played from 1956 to 1957 for the Philadelphia Warriors
  • Robert Landis "Bob" Armstrong (1932-2015), American Democratic politician and an environmental activist, 24th Commissioner of the General Land Office (1971-1983), Member of the Texas House of Representatives (1963-1971)
  • David Armstrong (1954-2014), American photographer based in New York
  • James Isbell Armstrong (1919-2013), American academic, President of Middlebury College (1963-1975)
  • Robert Golden "R.G." Armstrong Jr. (1917-2012), American actor and playwright
  • ... (Another 19 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Armstrong family



Flight 191

  • Mrs. R Armstrong, American passenger from Los Angeles, California, USA, who flew aboard American Airlines Flight 191 and died in the crash [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Flight 191's Victims - latimes. (Retrieved 2014, April 16) . Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/1985-08-04/news/mn-4349_1_fort-lauderdale-area

Hillcrest Coal Mine

  • Mr. James Armstrong (1878-1914), Scottish Timber Packer from Lochfitty Beath, Fife, Scotland, United Kingdom who worked in the Hillcrest Coal Mine, Alberta, Canada and died in the mine collapse [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    List Of Miners - Hillcrest Mine Disaster Data. (Retrieved 2014, June 24) . Retrieved from http://www.hillcrestminedisaster.com/data/index.php?title=List_Of_Miners

HMAS Sydney II

  • Mr. Harold James Armstrong (1917-1941), Australian Ordinary Seaman from Geelong West, Victoria, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp

HMS Dorsetshire

  • Edwin Francis Armstrong (d. 1945), British Telegraphist aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk; he died in the sinking [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Force Z Survivors HMS Dorsetshire Crew List, (Retrieved 2018, February 13th), https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listdorsetshirecrew.html

HMS Hood

  • Mr. Norman Armstrong (b. 1920), English Able Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Usworth, County Durham, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  • Mr. John C Armstrong (b. 1911), English Leading Stoker serving for the Royal Navy from Lemington, Northumberland, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm

HMS Prince of Wales

  • Mr. Sidney Armstrong, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  • Mr. Alfred Armstrong, British Boy 1st Class, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html

HMS Repulse

  • Mr. Joseph Armstrong, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  • Mr. G K Armstrong, British Sub Lieutenant, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html

HMS Royal Oak

  • George Henry Smith Armstrong (1908-1939), born in Chichester, Sussex, England, British Petty Officer with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html

Suggested Readings for the name Armstrong


  • Ancestry Descendants of Daniel F. Armstrong and Sarah Nutter by Evelyn Crawford Fenton.
  • Armstrong Ancestry: A Genealogy of the Descendants of Robert R. Armstrong by John Edward Armstrong.

The Armstrong Motto


The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Invictus maneo
Motto Translation: I remain unvanquished.


Armstrong Clan Badge

Armstrong Clan Badge

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A clan is a social group made up of a number of distinct branch-families that actually descended from, or accepted themselves as descendants of, a common ancestor. The word clan means simply children. The idea of the clan as a community is necessarily based around this idea of heredity and is most often ruled according to a patriarchal structure. For instance, the clan chief represented the hereditary "parent" of the entire clan. The most prominent example of this form of society is the Scottish Clan system...

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Septs of the Distinguished Name Armstrong
Armestrang, Armstrang, Armstrong, Armystrang, Cozier, Cozzier, Crosar, Crosier, Crossar, Crossier, Croyser, Crozer, Crozier, Crozuer, Fairbain, Fairbairn, Fairbairns, Fairbaorne, Fairbaourn, Fairbaourne, Fairbarn, Fairbarns, Fairbaurn, Fairbayrne, Fairbirn, Fairborn, Fairborne, Fairborns, Fairbourn, Fairbourne, Fairburn, Fairburns, Fairbyrne, Fairebain, Fairebairn, Fairebairns, Fairebaorne, Fairebaourn, Fairebarn, Fairebaurn, Fairebayrne, Fairebirn, Faireborne, Faireborns, Fairebourn, Fairebourne, Faireburn, Faireburns, Fairebyrne, Farebain and more.

Armstrong Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Black, George F., The Surnames of Scotland Their Origin, Meaning and History. New York: New York Public Library, 1946. Print. (ISBN 0-87104-172-3)
  2. ^ Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.
  3. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  4. ^ Seary E.R., Family Names of the Island of Newfoundland, Montreal: McGill's-Queen's Universtity Press 1998 ISBN 0-7735-1782-0
  5. ^ Rubincam, Milton. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1976. (Originally published as; United Empire Loyalists. The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada. Rose Publishing Company, 1885.) ISBN 0-8063-0331-X
  6. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Almorah voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1820 with 4 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/almorah/1820
  7. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1820 with 192 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1820
  8. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) PALMYRA 1839. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1839Palmyra.htm
  9. ^ NASA Astronauts Homepage. (Retrieved 2010, September 27) Neil Armstrong. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/armstrong-na.html
  10. ^ Flight 191's Victims - latimes. (Retrieved 2014, April 16) . Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/1985-08-04/news/mn-4349_1_fort-lauderdale-area
  11. ^ List Of Miners - Hillcrest Mine Disaster Data. (Retrieved 2014, June 24) . Retrieved from http://www.hillcrestminedisaster.com/data/index.php?title=List_Of_Miners
  12. ^ HMAS Sydney II, Finding Sydney Foundation - Roll of Honour. (Retrieved 2014, April 24) . Retrieved from http://www.findingsydney.com/roll.asp
  13. ^ Force Z Survivors HMS Dorsetshire Crew List, (Retrieved 2018, February 13th), https://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listdorsetshirecrew.html
  14. ^ H.M.S. Hood Association-Battle Cruiser Hood: Crew Information - H.M.S. Hood Rolls of Honour, Men Lost in the Sinking of H.M.S. Hood, 24th May 1941. (Retrieved 2016, July 15) . Retrieved from http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/roh_24may41.htm
  15. ^ HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  16. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  17. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html


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