from early times and their first records appeared on the census rolls taken by the ancient Kings of
to determine the rate of taxation of their subjects.
This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Pentland research.Another 78 words (6 lines of text) covering the years 1298, 1400, and 1480 are included under the topic Early Pentland History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.
Motto: Virtute et opera
Motto Translation: By virtue and energy.