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Robert History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms


Origins Available: English , French , Welsh


The Robert surname is derived from the personal name Robert. This name was originally came from the Old German words "hrod" and "behrt," which mean "fame" and "bright." It was introduced to Britain by Normans during the time of Edward the Confessor, and became very popular. [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Reaney, P.H and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. (ISBN 0-415-05737-X)
A large number of diminutives and pet-forms were derived from this name in early times.


Early Origins of the Robert family


The surname Robert was first found in Kent, where a Willelmus filius Roberti was listed in the Domesday Book. Also from the Domesday Book, [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Williams, Dr Ann. And G.H. Martin, Eds., Domesday Book A Complete Translation. London: Penguin, 1992. Print. (ISBN 0-141-00523-8)
we find a Robert the Bursar, Sheriff of Worcestershire, who held a castle at Tamworth, Staffordshire and had holdings in Gloucester, Leicester, Lincoln and Warwick; as well as Robert, son of Fafiton, who had holdings in Bedford, Cambridge, Huntingdon, and Middlesex. [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
Williams, Dr Ann. And G.H. Martin, Eds., Domesday Book A Complete Translation. London: Penguin, 1992. Print. (ISBN 0-141-00523-8)

Early History of the Robert family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Robert research.
Another 69 words (5 lines of text) covering the years 1279, 1292, 1296, 1327, 1660, 1605, 1662, 1609, 1675 and are included under the topic Early Robert History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Robert Spelling Variations


A multitude of spelling variations characterize Norman surnames. Many variations occurred because Old and Middle English lacked any definite spelling rules. The introduction of Norman French to England also had a pronounced effect, as did the court languages of Latin and French. Therefore, one person was often referred to by several different spellings in a single lifetime. The various spellings include Robert, Roberts, Robart, Robarts, Robberds and many more.

Early Notables of the Robert family (pre 1700)


Outstanding amongst the family at this time was Dr. Roberts, who was a member of the House of Lords in 1660; Sir William Roberts (1605-1662), of Neasden House at Willesden, Middlesex...
Another 31 words (2 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Robert Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Robert family to Ireland


Some of the Robert family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 57 words (4 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Robert family to the New World and Oceana


Many English families left England, to avoid the chaos of their homeland and migrated to the many British colonies abroad. Although the conditions on the ships were extremely cramped, and some travelers arrived diseased, starving, and destitute, once in the colonies, many of the families prospered and made valuable contributions to the cultures of what would become the United States and Canada. Research into the origins of individual families in North America has revealed records of the immigration of a number of people bearing the name Robert or a variant listed above:

Robert Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • Anthony Robert, who landed in Virginia in 1637 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • William Robert, who arrived in Virginia in 1651 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Thomas Robert, who arrived in Maryland in 1657 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • James Robert, who settled in Maryland in 1666
  • James Robert, who arrived in Maryland in 1666-1750 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Louis Robert, who landed in Virginia in 1700 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jacques Robert, aged 33, who landed in Louisiana in 1720 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Peter Robert, who arrived in South Carolina in 1755 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jacob Robert, who arrived in Long Island in 1781 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • George Robert, who arrived in New York in 1798 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)

Robert Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • Roger Robert, who arrived in America in 1816 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jose Robert, aged 25, who arrived in New Orleans, La in 1835 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Angel Robert, aged 53, who arrived in New Orleans, La in 1840 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Narcisse Robert, aged 40, who landed in New Orleans, La in 1841 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • John Robert, who landed in Tippecanoe County, Ind in 1844 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in Canada in the 17th Century

  • Mr. Geoffroy Robert, (b. 1612), aged 30, French settler travelling to Canada for work arriving on 31st March 1642 [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Debien, Gabriel. Liste Des Engagés Pour Le Canada Au XVIIe Siècle. Vol. 6, Laval University, 1952. (Retreived 24th May 2018). Retrieved from https://lebloguedeguyperron.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/130-liste-des-contrats-dengagement-pour-la-nouvelle-france-releves-a-la-rochelle-entre-1634-et-1679/
  • Guillaume Robert, aged 18, who landed in Montreal in 1653
  • Louis Robert, who settled in Quebec in 1665
  • Louis Robert, son of André and Catherine, married Marie Bourgery, daughter of Jean-Baptiste and Marie, in Trois-Rivières, Quebec on 25th November 1666 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Charles Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Marie Leber, daughter of François and Jeanne, in Contrecoeur, Quebec on 9th January 1681 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Joseph Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Marie-Josephte Larrivé, daughter of Pierre and Denise, in Boucherville, Quebec on 26th December 1701 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Joseph Robert, son of Jean and Anna, married Madeleine Demers, daughter of Charles and Élisabeth, in Montreal, Quebec on 15th November 1711 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Joseph Robert, son of Ignace and Jeanne, married Marguerite Girard, daughter of Pierre-Jacques and Marguerite, in Varennes, Quebec on 13th April 1711 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • François Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Marie Lanctot, daughter of François and Marguerite, in Longueuil, Quebec on 26th January 1712 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Jean-Baptiste Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Geneviève Brabant, daughter of Pierre and Marguerite, in Repentigny, Quebec on 5th February 1714 [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • Victor Robert, who landed in Red River, Canada in 1821

Robert Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • William Robert, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Pakenham" in 1849 [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The PAKENHAM 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849Pakenham.htm
  • Jonathan Robert, aged 34, a miner, who arrived in South Australia in 1853 aboard the ship "Neptune" [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Wednesday 26 October 1853. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Neptune 1853. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/neptune1853.shtml.
  • Patty Robert, aged 17, a dressmaker, who arrived in South Australia in 1854 aboard the ship "Navarino" [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Monday 14th August 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Navarino 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/navarino1854.shtml.
  • Henry Robert, aged 22, who arrived in South Australia in 1854 aboard the ship "Standard" [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Monday 18th December 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Standard 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/standard1854.shtml
  • M. Robert, aged 23, who arrived in South Australia in 1855 aboard the ship "Magdelana" [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Wednesday 17th January 1855. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Magdelana 1855. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/magdalena1855.shtml
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • Mr. James Robert, Scottish settler travelling from Glasgow aboard the ship "Jura" arriving in Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand on 23rd September 1858 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mrs. Robert, Scottish settler travelling from Glasgow aboard the ship "Jura" arriving in Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand on 23rd September 1858 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mr. William Robert, (b. 1823), aged 37, British cabinetmaker travelling from London aboard the ship "Gananoque" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 9th May 1860 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mrs. Lucy Durell Robert, (b. 1826), aged 34, British settler travelling from London aboard the ship "Gananoque" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 9th May 1860 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Miss. Lucy Robert, (b. 1846), aged 14, British settler travelling from London aboard the ship "Gananoque" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 9th May 1860 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Robert (post 1700)


  • Arthur Robert (1943-1993), American tennis player
  • Ridgway Robert (b. 1850), American ornithologist
  • Charles-Marie Robert Count d'Escorches de Sainte Croix, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, October 8) Charles-Marie Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Charles Marie- Robert, Count d'Escorches de Sainte Croix, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, September 11) Charles Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Simon Robert, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Simon Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Louis Benoît Robert, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Louis Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Joseph Louis Armand Robert, French Divisional General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Joseph Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Jean Gilles André Robert, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Jean-Baptiste Robert, French Divisional General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [18]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean-Baptiste Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Nicolas-Louis Robert (1760-1820), French engineer who built the world's first hydrogen balloon for professor Jacques Charles with his brother Anne-Jean
  • ... (Another 7 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Robert family



Arrow Air Flight 1285

  • Mr. John Connelly Robert, American Flight First Officer from Miami, USA who died in the crash [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550

Bismarck

  • Klaus Robert (1920-1941), German Matrosengefreiter who served aboard the German Battleship Bismarck during World War II when it was sunk heading to France; he died in the sinking [20]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Bismarck & Tirpitz Class - Crew List Bismarck. (Retrieved 2018, February 06). Retrieved from https://www.bismarck-class.dk/bismarck/crew/bismarck_crew.html#crew_details

RMS Titanic

  • Mrs. Elisabeth Walton Robert, (née McMillan), aged 43, American First Class passenger from St. Louis, Missouri who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping in life boat 2 [21]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

Suggested Readings for the name Robert


  • The Pioneer Rapids Families by George Mason Graham Stafford.

Robert Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Reaney, P.H and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames. London: Routledge, 1991. Print. (ISBN 0-415-05737-X)
  2. ^ Williams, Dr Ann. And G.H. Martin, Eds., Domesday Book A Complete Translation. London: Penguin, 1992. Print. (ISBN 0-141-00523-8)
  3. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  4. ^ Debien, Gabriel. Liste Des Engagés Pour Le Canada Au XVIIe Siècle. Vol. 6, Laval University, 1952. (Retreived 24th May 2018). Retrieved from https://lebloguedeguyperron.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/130-liste-des-contrats-dengagement-pour-la-nouvelle-france-releves-a-la-rochelle-entre-1634-et-1679/
  5. ^ Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  6. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The PAKENHAM 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849Pakenham.htm
  7. ^ South Australian Register Wednesday 26 October 1853. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Neptune 1853. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/neptune1853.shtml.
  8. ^ South Australian Register Monday 14th August 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Navarino 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/navarino1854.shtml.
  9. ^ South Australian Register Monday 18th December 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Standard 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/standard1854.shtml
  10. ^ South Australian Register Wednesday 17th January 1855. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Magdelana 1855. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/magdalena1855.shtml
  11. ^ New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  12. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, October 8) Charles-Marie Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  13. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, September 11) Charles Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  14. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Simon Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  15. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Louis Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  16. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Joseph Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  17. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  18. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean-Baptiste Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  19. ^ American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550
  20. ^ Bismarck & Tirpitz Class - Crew List Bismarck. (Retrieved 2018, February 06). Retrieved from https://www.bismarck-class.dk/bismarck/crew/bismarck_crew.html#crew_details
  21. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html


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