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Robert History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms


Origins Available: English , French , Welsh


The Robert surname is derived from the personal name Robert. This name was originally came from the Old German words "hrod" and "behrt," which mean "fame" and "bright." It was introduced to Britain by the Normans during the time of Edward the Confessor, and became very popular. A large number of diminutives and pet-forms were derived from this name in early times.


Early Origins of the Robert family


The surname Robert was first found in Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych), a historic county in Northeast Wales created by the Laws in Wales Act 1536, where they were descended from Einion Efell, Lord of Cynllateh, through Howell ap Iolyn of Llangedwyn, and were directly descended from Rhodri Mawr, King of Wales.

Early History of the Robert family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Robert research.
Another 106 words (8 lines of text) covering the years 1585, 1665, 1679, 1648, 1657, 1606, 1685, 1649, 1718, 1682, 1722, 1719, 1722, 1606, 1685, 1679, 1684, 1660, 1723 and are included under the topic Early Robert History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Robert Spelling Variations


There are relatively few surnames native to Wales, but they have an inordinately large number of spelling variations. Early variations of Welsh surnames can be explained by the fact that very few people in the early Middle Ages were literate. Priests and the few other literate people were responsible for recording names in official documents. And because most people could not specific how to properly record their names it was up to the individual recorder of that time to determine how a spoken name should be recorded. Variations due to the imprecise or improper recording of a name continued later in history when names originally composed in the Brythonic Celtic, language of Wales, known by natives as Cymraeg, were transliterated into English. Welsh names that were documented in English often changed dramatically since the native language of Wales, which was highly inflected, did not copy well. Occasionally, however, spelling variations were carried out according to an individual's specific design: a branch loyalty within the family, a religious adherence, or even patriotic affiliations could be indicated by minor variations. The spelling variations of the name Robert have included Roberts, Robert, Robartes, Robarts and others.

Early Notables of the Robert family (pre 1700)


Prominent amongst the family during the late Middle Ages was William Roberts (1585-1665), Welsh Bishop of Bangor; Richard Roberts, Sheriff of Cornwall; Michael Roberts (died 1679), Welsh-born, Principal of Jesus College, Oxford from 1648 to 1657; John Robartes, 1st Earl of Radnor and Viscount Bodmin PC (1606-1685), an English politician; and his son, Francis Robartes FRS (c. 1649-1718), an English politician; and John "Bartholomew" Roberts (1682-1722), Welsh pirate who raided ships off America and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. He changed his first name to Bartholomew after the buccaneer Bartholomew Sharp. He was the most successful pirate of the Golden...
Another 115 words (8 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Robert Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Robert family to Ireland


Some of the Robert family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 73 words (5 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Robert family to the New World and Oceana


During the latter half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the people of Wales journeyed to North America to find a new life. They made major contributions to the arts, industry and commerce of both Canada and the United States, and added a rich cultural heritage to their newly adopted societies. A look at the immigration and passenger lists has shown a number of people bearing the name Robert:

Robert Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • Anthony Robert, who landed in Virginia in 1637 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • William Robert, who arrived in Virginia in 1651 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Thomas Robert, who arrived in Maryland in 1657 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • James Robert, who settled in Maryland in 1666
  • James Robert, who arrived in Maryland in 1666-1750 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Louis Robert, who landed in Virginia in 1700 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jacques Robert, aged 33, who landed in Louisiana in 1720 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Peter Robert, who arrived in South Carolina in 1755 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jacob Robert, who arrived in Long Island in 1781 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • George Robert, who arrived in New York in 1798 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)

Robert Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • Roger Robert, who arrived in America in 1816 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jose Robert, aged 25, who arrived in New Orleans, La in 1835 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Angel Robert, aged 53, who arrived in New Orleans, La in 1840 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Narcisse Robert, aged 40, who landed in New Orleans, La in 1841 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • John Robert, who landed in Tippecanoe County, Ind in 1844 [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in Canada in the 17th Century

  • Mr. Geoffroy Robert, (b. 1612), aged 30, French settler travelling to Canada for work arriving on 31st March 1642 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Debien, Gabriel. Liste Des Engagés Pour Le Canada Au XVIIe Siècle. Vol. 6, Laval University, 1952. (Retreived 24th May 2018). Retrieved from https://lebloguedeguyperron.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/130-liste-des-contrats-dengagement-pour-la-nouvelle-france-releves-a-la-rochelle-entre-1634-et-1679/
  • Guillaume Robert, aged 18, who landed in Montreal in 1653
  • Louis Robert, who settled in Quebec in 1665
  • Louis Robert, son of André and Catherine, married Marie Bourgery, daughter of Jean-Baptiste and Marie, in Trois-Rivières, Quebec on 25th November 1666 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Charles Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Marie Leber, daughter of François and Jeanne, in Contrecoeur, Quebec on 9th January 1681 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Joseph Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Marie-Josephte Larrivé, daughter of Pierre and Denise, in Boucherville, Quebec on 26th December 1701 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Joseph Robert, son of Jean and Anna, married Madeleine Demers, daughter of Charles and Élisabeth, in Montreal, Quebec on 15th November 1711 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Joseph Robert, son of Ignace and Jeanne, married Marguerite Girard, daughter of Pierre-Jacques and Marguerite, in Varennes, Quebec on 13th April 1711 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • François Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Marie Lanctot, daughter of François and Marguerite, in Longueuil, Quebec on 26th January 1712 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • Jean-Baptiste Robert, son of Louis and Marie, married Geneviève Brabant, daughter of Pierre and Marguerite, in Repentigny, Quebec on 5th February 1714 [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • Victor Robert, who landed in Red River, Canada in 1821

Robert Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • William Robert, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Pakenham" in 1849 [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The PAKENHAM 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849Pakenham.htm
  • Jonathan Robert, aged 34, a miner, who arrived in South Australia in 1853 aboard the ship "Neptune" [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Wednesday 26 October 1853. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Neptune 1853. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/neptune1853.shtml.
  • Patty Robert, aged 17, a dressmaker, who arrived in South Australia in 1854 aboard the ship "Navarino" [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Monday 14th August 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Navarino 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/navarino1854.shtml.
  • Henry Robert, aged 22, who arrived in South Australia in 1854 aboard the ship "Standard" [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Monday 18th December 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Standard 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/standard1854.shtml
  • M. Robert, aged 23, who arrived in South Australia in 1855 aboard the ship "Magdelana" [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    South Australian Register Wednesday 17th January 1855. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Magdelana 1855. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/magdalena1855.shtml
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Robert Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • Mr. James Robert, Scottish settler travelling from Glasgow aboard the ship "Jura" arriving in Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand on 23rd September 1858 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mrs. Robert, Scottish settler travelling from Glasgow aboard the ship "Jura" arriving in Dunedin, Otago, South Island, New Zealand on 23rd September 1858 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mr. John R W P Robert, British settler travelling from Liverpool (Mersey) aboard the ship "Viscount Sandon" arriving in Wellington, New Zealand then Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand in 1860 [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 26th March 2019). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mr. William Robert, (b. 1823), aged 37, British cabinetmaker travelling from London aboard the ship "Gananoque" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 9th May 1860 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • Mrs. Lucy Durell Robert, (b. 1826), aged 34, British settler travelling from London aboard the ship "Gananoque" arriving in Lyttelton, Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand on 9th May 1860 [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Robert (post 1700)


  • Arthur Robert (1943-1993), American tennis player
  • Ridgway Robert (b. 1850), American ornithologist
  • Charles-Marie Robert Count d'Escorches de Sainte Croix, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, October 8) Charles-Marie Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Charles Marie- Robert, Count d'Escorches de Sainte Croix, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, September 11) Charles Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Simon Robert, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Simon Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Louis Benoît Robert, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Louis Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Joseph Louis Armand Robert, French Divisional General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Joseph Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Jean Gilles André Robert, French Brigadier General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Jean-Baptiste Robert, French Divisional General during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean-Baptiste Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  • Nicolas-Louis Robert (1760-1820), French engineer who built the world's first hydrogen balloon for professor Jacques Charles with his brother Anne-Jean
  • ... (Another 7 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Robert family



Arrow Air Flight 1285

  • Mr. John Connelly Robert, American Flight First Officer from Miami, USA who died in the crash [18]CITATION[CLOSE]
    American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550

Bismarck

  • Klaus Robert (1920-1941), German Matrosengefreiter who served aboard the German Battleship Bismarck during World War II when it was sunk heading to France; he died in the sinking [19]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Bismarck & Tirpitz Class - Crew List Bismarck. (Retrieved 2018, February 06). Retrieved from https://www.bismarck-class.dk/bismarck/crew/bismarck_crew.html#crew_details

RMS Titanic

  • Mrs. Elisabeth Walton Robert, (née McMillan), aged 43, American First Class passenger from St. Louis, Missouri who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping in life boat 2 [20]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

Suggested Readings for the name Robert


  • The Pioneer Rapids Families by George Mason Graham Stafford.

The Robert Motto


The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will; many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Ewch ymlaen
Motto Translation: Go forward.


Robert Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  2. ^ Debien, Gabriel. Liste Des Engagés Pour Le Canada Au XVIIe Siècle. Vol. 6, Laval University, 1952. (Retreived 24th May 2018). Retrieved from https://lebloguedeguyperron.wordpress.com/2016/06/30/130-liste-des-contrats-dengagement-pour-la-nouvelle-france-releves-a-la-rochelle-entre-1634-et-1679/
  3. ^ Internoscia, Arthur E., and Claire Chevrier. Dictionnaire National des Canadiens Français 1608-1760. Vol. 2, Institut Drouin, 1958.
  4. ^ State Records of South Australia. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) The PAKENHAM 1849. Retrieved from http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/BSA/1849Pakenham.htm
  5. ^ South Australian Register Wednesday 26 October 1853. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Neptune 1853. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/neptune1853.shtml.
  6. ^ South Australian Register Monday 14th August 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Navarino 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/navarino1854.shtml.
  7. ^ South Australian Register Monday 18th December 1854. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Standard 1854. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/standard1854.shtml
  8. ^ South Australian Register Wednesday 17th January 1855. (Retrieved 2010, November 5) Magdelana 1855. Retrieved http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/australia/magdalena1855.shtml
  9. ^ New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 17th October 2018). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  10. ^ New Zealand Yesteryears Passenger Lists 1800 to 1900 (Retrieved 26th March 2019). Retrieved from http://www.yesteryears.co.nz/shipping/passlist.html
  11. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, October 8) Charles-Marie Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  12. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, September 11) Charles Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  13. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Simon Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  14. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Louis Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  15. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Joseph Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  16. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  17. ^ Generals Who Served in the French Army during the Period 1789-1815. (Retrieved 2015, August 27) Jean-Baptiste Robert. Retrieved from http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/c_frenchgenerals.html
  18. ^ American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550
  19. ^ Bismarck & Tirpitz Class - Crew List Bismarck. (Retrieved 2018, February 06). Retrieved from https://www.bismarck-class.dk/bismarck/crew/bismarck_crew.html#crew_details
  20. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html


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