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Lawrence History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms



Lawrence is an ancient Anglo-Saxon name that is derived from the name Lawrence. This name is in turn derived from the Latin name Laurentius, which literally means man from Laurentium, a town in Italy named for its laurels or bay trees. The popularity of this name in medieval Europe is due to the exploits of a saint who was martyred at Rome in the 3rd century.

Early Origins of the Lawrence family


The surname Lawrence was first found in Lancashire at Yealand-Redmayne, a township, in the parish of Warton, union of Lancaster, hundred of Lonsdale south of the Sands. "Yealand Hall, an ancient dwelling at Yealand-Storrs in the township, seems to have been possessed in the reign of Henry VIII. by the family of Lawrence, who held the manor of "Yeland-Redmayn" as of the manor of Warton." [1]CITATION[CLOSE]
Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.

Early History of the Lawrence family


This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Lawrence research.
Another 205 words (15 lines of text) covering the years 1252, 1150, 1598, 1657, 1614, 1692, 1664, 1665, 1618, 1699, 1635, 1672, 1674 and 1691 are included under the topic Early Lawrence History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Lawrence Spelling Variations


Lawrence has been spelled many different ways. Before English spelling became standardized over the last few hundred years, spelling variations in names were a common occurrence. As the English language changed in the Middle Ages, absorbing pieces of Latin and French, as well as other languages, the spelling of people's names also changed considerably, even over a single lifetime. Many variations of the name Lawrence have been found, including Lawrence, Laurence, Lawerence, Lawrance and many more.

Early Notables of the Lawrence family (pre 1700)


Notables of this surname at this time include: Thomas Laurence (1598-1657), an English churchman and academic, at the age of 16 he attended Balliol College, Oxford (1614); Sir John Lawrence (died 1692), an English merchant and politician, Lord...
Another 37 words (3 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Lawrence Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Lawrence family to the New World and Oceana


In an attempt to escape the chaos experienced in England, many English families boarded overcrowded and diseased ships sailing for the shores of North America and other British colonies. Those families hardy enough, and lucky enough, to make the passage intact were rewarded with land and a social environment less prone to religious and political persecution. Many of these families became important contributors to the young colonies in which they settled. Early immigration and passenger lists have documented some of the first Lawrences to arrive on North American shores:

Lawrence Settlers in United States in the 17th Century

  • Blackwell Lawrence, aged 16, who landed in Barbados in 1635 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Dorothy Lawrence, aged 28, who arrived in Barbados in 1635 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Jo Lawrence, aged 17, who arrived in Barbados in 1635 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • John Lawrence, who landed in America in 1635 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Maria Lawrence, aged 9, who landed in New England in 1635 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Lawrence Settlers in United States in the 18th Century

  • Alice Lawrence, who landed in Virginia in 1701 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Richard Lawrence, who landed in Virginia in 1703 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Margaret Lawrence, who arrived in Virginia in 1703 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Martin Lawrence, who arrived in Virginia in 1719 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Antho Lawrence, aged 36, who arrived in Virginia in 1773 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)

Lawrence Settlers in United States in the 19th Century

  • William Effingham Lawrence, who landed in New York in 1806 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Vincent Lawrence, who landed in Charleston, South Carolina in 1807 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • Nathaniel Lawrence, who arrived in New York in 1809 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • I F Lawrence, who arrived in Mobile, Ala in 1821 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • I Lawrence, who landed in Mobile, Ala in 1822 [2]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Lawrence Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century

  • Ann Lawrence, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Eliz Lawrence, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • George Lawrence, who arrived in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • John Lawrence, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • Samuel Lawrence, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1750
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Lawrence Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century

  • Samuel Lawrence, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1824
  • George Lawrence, who arrived in Canada in 1832
  • Mr. John Lawrence, aged 30 who was emigrating through Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec aboard the ship "Columbia" departing 1st May 1847 from Sligo, Ireland; the ship arrived on 10th June 1847 but he died on board [3]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 83)

Lawrence Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century

  • Lewis Lawrence, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Almorah" on April 1817, settling in New South Wales, Australia [4]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Almorah voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1817 with 180 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/almorah/1817
  • Benjamin Lawrence, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Asia" on September 3rd, 1820, settling in New South Wales, Australia [5]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1820 with 192 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1820
  • John Lawrence, English convict from London, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on July 3, 1822, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [6]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Arab voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1822 with 155 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/arab/1822
  • Isabella Lawrence, English convict from York, who was transported aboard the "America" on December 30, 1830, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia [7]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 26) America voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1830 with 135 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/america/1830
  • George Howard Lawrence, English convict from Southampton, who was transported aboard the "Andromeda" on November 13, 1832, settling in New South Wales, Australia [8]CITATION[CLOSE]
    State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 27) Andromeda voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1832 with 186 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/andromeda/1832
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Lawrence Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century

  • Sarah Lawrence, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1842
  • H Lawrence, who landed in Auckland, New Zealand in 1845
  • Alfred Lawrence, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Alma" in 1857
  • Charlotte Lawrence, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Alma" in 1857
  • Wallace Lawrence, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Alma" in 1857
  • ... (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Lawrence Settlers in New Zealand in the 20th Century

  • James Lawrence, aged 31, who arrived in Auckland, New Zealand aboard the ship "S. S. Waimana" in 1926

Contemporary Notables of the name Lawrence (post 1700)


  • David Herbert "DH" Lawrence (1885-1930), prolific English author, best known for his novels Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love and Lady Chatterley's Lover
  • Jennifer Shrader Lawrence (b. 1990), American multiple award winning actress, the highest-paid actress in the world in 2015 and 2016, perhaps best known for her roles in X-Men and The Hunger Games movies
  • Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Edward "T.E." Lawrence CB, DSO (1888-1935), British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer, also known as Lawrence of Arabia; he was fatally injured in an accident on his Brough Superior SS100 motorcycle in Dorset; he died 6 days later at the age of 46
  • David Lawrence (1888-1973), American conservative newspaperman, recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
  • J. Vinton "Vint" Lawrence (1939-2016), former U.S. Central Intelligence Agency paramilitary officer, member of the elite Special Activities Division
  • Francis Leo Lawrence (1937-2013), American educator and French literature scholar, President of Rutgers University (1990–2002)
  • Major-General Charles White Lawrence (1901-1982), American Commanding General of the 3700th Air Force Indoctrination Wing and Lackland AFB, Texas (1949-1951) [9]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2012, April 10) Charles Lawrence. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Lawrence/Charles_White/USA.html
  • Major-General Thompson Lawrence (1889-1973), American Commanding General 99th Division (1942-1943) [10]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2012, April 2) Thompson Lawrence. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Lawrence/Thompson/USA.html
  • Wendy Barrien Lawrence (b. 1959), former NASA astronaut with over 1,225 hours in space [11]CITATION[CLOSE]
    NASA Astronauts Homepage. (Retrieved 2010, September 27) Wendy Lawrence. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/lawrence.html
  • Vicki Lawrence (1949-2004), American actress, comedienne and singer
  • ... (Another 18 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Lawrence family



Arrow Air Flight 1285

  • Mr. Michael R Lawrence (b. 1949), American Major from Atlanta, Georgia, USA who died in the crash [12]CITATION[CLOSE]
    American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550

Halifax Explosion

  • child Lawrence, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  • Mrs. Mary E.  Lawrence (1880-1917), née Lund, Canadian resident from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [13]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance

HMS Prince of Wales

  • Mr. Wilfred Lawrence, British Boy, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  • Mr. Peter Lawrence (b. 1925), English Boy from England, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [14]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html

HMS Repulse

  • Mr. Whorton Lawrence, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  • Mr. J W Lawrence, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  • Mr. Thomas H Lawrence, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  • Mr. Harold C D Lawrence, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [15]CITATION[CLOSE]
    HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html

HMS Royal Oak

  • Alfred Lawrence, British Chief Steward with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  • William A. Lawrence, British Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  • A. Lawrence, British Marine with the Royal Marine aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he survived the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  • James Egerton Lawrence (1920-1939), British Marine with the Royal Marine aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk; he died in the sinking [16]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html

RMS Lusitania

  • Mr. William Lawrence, English Fireman from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  • Miss Ella Woods Lawrence, Canadian 2nd Class passenger from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking and was recovered [17]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/

RMS Titanic

  • Mr. Arthur Lawrence (d. 1912), aged 25, English Saloon Steward from Rochford, Essex who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [18]CITATION[CLOSE]
    Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

Suggested Readings for the name Lawrence


  • The History of the Bemis, Perkinson, Fay, and Lawrence Families by Ted H. Bemis.
  • From the European Continent to American Colonist & Citizen: the 275 Year History of the Lowrance (also Lawrence) Family in America by Gayford Radar Lowrence.

Lawrence Family Crest Products



See Also



Citations


  1. ^ Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research, 1848, Print.
  2. ^ Filby, P. William, Meyer, Mary K., Passenger and immigration lists index : a guide to published arrival records of about 500,000 passengers who came to the United States and Canada in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 1982-1985 Cumulated Supplements in Four Volumes Detroit, Mich. : Gale Research Co., 1985, Print (ISBN 0-8103-1795-8)
  3. ^ Charbonneau, André, and Doris Drolet-Dubé. A Register of Deceased Persons at Sea and on Grosse Île in 1847. The Minister of Canadian Heritage, 1997. ISBN: 0-660-198/1-1997E (p. 83)
  4. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Almorah voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1817 with 180 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/almorah/1817
  5. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Asia 1 voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1820 with 192 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/asia/1820
  6. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2016, October 27) Arab voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1822 with 155 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/arab/1822
  7. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 26) America voyage to Van Diemen's Land, Australia in 1830 with 135 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/america/1830
  8. ^ State Library of Queensland. (Retrieved 2014, November 27) Andromeda voyage to New South Wales, Australia in 1832 with 186 passengers. Retrieved from http://www.convictrecords.com.au/ships/andromeda/1832
  9. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2012, April 10) Charles Lawrence. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Lawrence/Charles_White/USA.html
  10. ^ Generals of World War II. (Retrieved 2012, April 2) Thompson Lawrence. Retrieved from http://generals.dk/general/Lawrence/Thompson/USA.html
  11. ^ NASA Astronauts Homepage. (Retrieved 2010, September 27) Wendy Lawrence. Retrieved from http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/lawrence.html
  12. ^ American War Memorials - Flight 1285. (Retrieved 2016, August 24) . Retrieved from http://www.uswarmemorials.org/html/monument_details.php?SiteID=317&MemID=550
  13. ^ Halifax Explosion Book of Remembrance | Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. (Retrieved 2014, June 23) . Retrieved from https://maritimemuseum.novascotia.ca/what-see-do/halifax-explosion/halifax-explosion-book-remembrance
  14. ^ HMS Prince of Wales Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listprincecrew.html
  15. ^ HMS Repulse Crew members. (Retrieved 2014, April 9) . Retrieved from http://www.forcez-survivors.org.uk/biographies/listrepulsecrew.html
  16. ^ Ships hit by U-boats crew list HMS Royal Oak (08) - (Retrieved 2018 February, 9th) - retrieved from https://uboat.net/allies/merchants/crews/ship68.html
  17. ^ Lusitania Passenger List - The Lusitania Resource. (Retrieved 2014, March 6) . Retrieved from http://www.rmslusitania.info/lusitania-passenger-list/
  18. ^ Titanic Passenger List - Titanic Facts. (Retrieved 2016, July 13) . Retrieved from http://www.titanicfacts.net/titanic-passenger-list.html

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