The prestigious Jewish surname Horowitz comes from Bohemia, which is now part of the Czech Republic. In the Middle Ages, people were often known by only one name. As they began moving closer together, it became necessary to adopt surnames, in order to better distinguish themselves from one another. There are a wide variety of hereditary surnames, and the surname Horowitz is a habitational name. It is taken from the place called Horovice, in Bohemia which is derived from the Slavic element, gora, which means hill.