The distinguished surname Castellino originated in an area of Italy, known as the Papal States. Although people were originally known only by a single name, it became necessary for people to adapt a second name to identify themselves as populations grew and travel became more frequent. The process of adopting fixed
was not complete until the modern era, but the use of hereditary family names in Italy began in the 10th and 11th centuries. Italian hereditary surnames were developed according to fairly general principles and they are characterized by a profusion of derivatives coined from given names. Although the most traditional type of family name found in the region of the Papal States is the
surnames are also found.
names, which are the least frequent of the major types of surnames found in Italy, are derived from a place-name where the original bearer once resided or held land. Often Italian local surnames bore the prefix "di," which signifies emigration from one place to another, but does not necessarily denote nobility. The Castellino family lived at or near a "castle."
The surname Castellino was first found in the year 1070, when Pantaleone Castelli was responsible for the construction of the bronze doors for the church of San Paolo.
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Surnames that originated in Italy are characterized by an enormous number of spelling variations
. Some of these are derived from regional traditions and dialects. Northern names, for instance, often end in "o", while southern names tend to end in "i". Other variations come from the fact the medieval scribes tended to spell according to the sound of words, rather than any particular set of rules. The recorded variations of Castellino include Castelli, Castello, Castella, Castiello, Castiglio, Del Castello, Del Castiglio, Castelletti, Castelletto, Castelletta, Castellini, Castellino, Castellucci, Casteluccio, Castelluzzi, Castelluzzo, Castellotti, Castellotto, Castellone, Castiglione, Castiglioni, Castioni, Castellacci, Castellaccio, Castellazzi, Castellazzo, Castellani, Castellano, Castellana, Castellàn, Castellaneta, Castellari, Castellaro, Castellarini, Castellarìn, Castelfranco, Castelfranchi, Castelnovo, Castelnuovo, Castelnovi, Castelvecchio, Castelvecchi, Castelvetro and many more.