The region of Languedoc was named after the dialect used in that region: Langue d'oc means the language that uses oc for yes. The major rival to this particular French dialect was the northern langue d'oïl, which means the language that uses oïl for yes. Languedoc as a region included the southeastern portion of the Massif Central, a plateau in the south of France, and ran from the province of Roussillon, in the west, to the Rhône River, forming the border with Provence, in the east. Toulouse was one of the most important counties in the region as it held the capital of the region, which was also called Toulouse.
Languedoc was eventually annexed by France in 1271. Early in this century, Rome, under Pope Innocent II, condemned a Christian sect called the Albigenses, whose theology was based on Manichaean dualism. Innocent declared the sect heretical because it denied the divinity of Christ and the Incarnation, and because they came to have much influence over the southern part of France. The Albigenses were largely based in the Languedoc region. Pope Innocent II founded the Dominican Order to combat them. The Pope's crusade against this sect developed into a general civil war between the north and the south of France, resulting in the defeat of the south. The langue d'oc was then suppressed and so the langue d'oïl became the dominant language of France and the ancestor of Modern French.
- ^ Swyrich, Archive materials