Dutch is the distinct Germanic language of the Netherlands and Flanders. Sometimes referred to as Netherlandic, Dutch includes the standard language and dialects of the Netherlands (excluding Frisian), as well as Flemish, and Afrikaans. As a Germanic-based language, Dutch shares certain characteristics with both Modern German and English.
Around the 3rd century AD, the area now known as Netherlands was occuppied by various Germanic tribes: the Frisians in the north and west, the Franks in the south, and the Saxons in the east. Today's Dutch language is derived primarily from the Frank dialect, but regional differences in dialects and customs can still be detected in the country.
Afrikaans is a variety of Dutch that was developed in the South Africa. The Dutch spoken in South Africa became distinctive due to its isolation and its exposure to the German and French of other colonists. It became a standardized language in 1875 and is currently an official language of South Africa.